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090227NA机经及相关阅读(备考2011四月托福必读)-更新(4.23已考)

2011-03-30 12:43 作者: 来源: 本站 浏览: 1,925 views Make a Comment 字号:

摘要: 2009.2.27NA Reading 第一篇 有关于水草,画面中有一幅图画,左边是水草,右边是一般陆生植物,比较水草的根和陆生植物的不同,问海草在什麼情況下会死亡,深海的植物因为吸收不同波长的光线,所以会变成红色或褐色。 題目: 海草为什么会被...

2009.2.27NA
Reading
第一篇 有关于水草,画面中有一幅图画,左边是水草,右边是一般陆生植物,比较水草的根和陆生植物的不同,问海草在什麼情況下会死亡,深海的植物因为吸收不同波长的光线,所以会变成红色或褐色。

題目:

海草为什么会被植物学家特别划分出来?因为它有叶绿素会行光合作用;

为什么 storm 有可能造成海草死亡?因为它的根脱落;

海草跟陆上植物叶子和根作用有何不同?海草的叶子不储存水份

海草的根不吸收水分及营养。

海草及algae。讲海草跟陆生植物的不同,海草不会开花也沒有种子。海草一定要生存。

在阳光照射到的地方(phonics zone) (有題),因为要行光合作用,green, brown and red algae 分別住在浅、中及深,三种深度。

第二篇 八世纪的欧洲经济:

欧洲在八世纪时主要的经济活动都是农业,即使有其他的工作,也都是跟农业有关系的,例如铁工(有题,问提到別的工作的目的是什么?答案是表达它们与农业的connect 的关系)。

一开始只是自己自足的狀況,其中历经了气候异常的温暖,温度升高,冬天温和(有题,问何者不是收成变好的原因,答案是农耕科技),所以农作收成就变好了,变得可以subsist for life(有字汇題)。

后来农民放弃了自己的农田(有题,问为什么?因为安全因素),大家变得集合住在一起住。一起后发现好处很多,可以交流、一起耕种,所以农耕技术变好了,收成也变多了,后来这些住在一起的农民们決定让一个人出来当头,给他权利。

第三篇 摄影师Alfred Stieglitz:

第一段讲摄影科技的進步,作品也因此产生变化,后来讲摄影师Alfred Stieglitz 作品重写实,问到文中他提到另二位同行的目的是?反映当时的摄影过于美化不够写实。

Listening
听力1 一个是一女生想去海外学习,先说想去巴西。director说你可以去日本而且日本大学的课与你专业有关,而且是英文授课,女生去过,学过日语,但是女生说他的日语没有那么好,没有办法在日本生活。女生说他在高中学过四年的西班牙语,officer就说墨西哥有一大学课程你可以去,还说有一人之前去过,说好的很,你去找一个xxx同学问问,但是他的资料在哪呢?女的说,噢,那人我认识,我们一个课堂的,然后教授说太好了。
听力2 有个女生去找教授,教授闲聊了一下你法国交换学生一年经验如何啊?女生说很好,后来女生切入正题说:我来这是有事问你的,你上的一门课跟我去做intern 的时间冲突了,那个intern是很难得的,怎麼办呢?教授说我的时间不能改,是固定的。女生问说可以用我在法国上的课来抵吗?教授说不行,因为我上的课比那复杂(有题,问为什么不能用法国的课抵),那女生就说那我可以上online 的吗?教授说不行,因为我的课要参与课堂讨论(有题,问为什么不能上online的)。后来女生就说,那我只好不去那个我喜欢的intern 了,改去另一个比较不怎样的intern。
听力3 公司的employee需要三个因素
听力4 讲到树蝙蝠跟洞穴蝙蝠,问到为什么年轻的树蝙蝠常常搬家,还有挑选树木的问题。
听力5 三种 literature 的不同,其中会讲到各代表他们风格的书(有题),三种分別是realism literature、Modern literature、post-modern literature。
听力6
Speaking
Task 1 什么东西进步是你觉得你国家在过去20年里最重要的。
Task 2 父母是孩子最好的老师
Task 3 【学校通知】:学校要凭请以有名的director,要拍一部剧就在学校的theatre,学校觉得会有很多学生来看,是很好的一件事。

【学生议论】:女生反对

理由1、这director自己就很忙了没工夫辅导他们,这d一周来学校一天,而且女生觉得这d不会pay attention给他们排的剧,女生本身参加这出剧,他觉得自己sing, dance都是自己排练。

理由2、虽然这d出名,但是只是在他们这行出名,别人不知道,所以不会有很多人来看,旁边的男生就说是,他就不知道d。

Task 4 【课文要点】:

【教授举例】:

Task 5 【学生困难】:一女生放学后working with young,然后下周要带一帮孩子去博物馆,结果那tour guy very sick,没有办法带他们。

【解决方案】:

方案1、自己带,担心自己解说的没有人家好。

方案2、旁边男生说换个时间再去,女生说换时间的话又要预约博物馆,又要从家长那里拿permission,还要arrange tickets。

Task 6 【讲课要点】:讲动物protect自己的,分成structure和behavior,s是developed body shape,b是装死。
Writing
综合写作 tortoise数量减少
阅读(保护方法) 听力(方法不行)
保护tortoise的赖以生存的生活环境。 不止人在破坏,还有其他因素在破坏这个森林阿,比如火。
可以把他们带回研究所,人工喂养,再放生。 这个疾病很容易传播的阿,万一有病放出去了,会死,因为没接受治疗,还有给其他的带来危险。
挑一些出来送到其他适合的环境去。 tortoise认家,你把他带到哪里,他都不呆,就是要回家。而且路上很危险。

以下内容不是机经,是根据机经找到的相关材料,作为背景知识补充,请认真阅读

相关阅读:

1.Red Seaweeds

Red seaweeds have had a more diverse evolution than the green and the brown. Many species cannot stand desiccation and dominate the inter-tidal rock pools. Others tolerate desiccation, such as the purple laver which can often be seen stretched out like a dry black film over mussle beds on rocky beaches.

Red seaweeds such as Polysiphonia lanosa are epiphytes, these are plants that grow on other plants for physical support. In this case the epiphyte benefits from the host’s buoyancy lifting it closer to the sunlight.

The red colour of the seaweeds is due to the larger amount of red phycoblin pigments overriding the green pigment chlorophyll.

The pigments that colour it red have a purpose, enabling the seaweeds to photosynthesis light from a specific part of the light spectrum. Within the group of phycoblins two pigments are of importance phycoerythrin and phycocyanin. Phycoerythrin absorbs green, yellow and red light while phycocyanin absorbs blue, green and yellow light. These parts of the spectrum are the type of light that penetrates the deepest in sea water. The red pigments absorb the light but chlorophyll is still required to process it. This method allows red seaweed to survive in low light conditions where green seaweeds could not.

The light intensity has an affect on the red pigments which is reflected in the colour of the seaweeds. With high light levels the pigment starts to break down, the seaweeds becoming pink or even bleached white. With low levels pigment production is stepped up producing really red plants.

相关阅读2 European economy   andagriculture in 11th century

The demographic expansion, which may have determined everything else, but must itself be explained – notably perhaps by the wave of progress in agricultural techniques which began in the eleventh century, with the improved
design of the plough, triennial rotation and the open field system for stock farming. Lynn White’ regards agricultural progress as of prime importance in the rise of Europe. Maurice Lombard” lays more stress on the progress made in trade: Italy had early links with Islam and Byzantium, and thus came into contact with the already active monetary economy of the East, which she transmitted to the rest of Europe. Towns spelled money, the essential ingredient of the so-called commercial revolution. Georges Duby,” and with some reservations Roberto Lopez,21 tend to agree with Lynn White: the vital factor was agricultural overproduction and the large- scale redistribution of surpluses.
A larger population, the perfection of agricultural techniques, the revival of trade and the first wave of craft industry were all essential factors if the area known as Europe was to develop an urban network, an urban superstructure, with inter- city links encompassing all underlying activities and obliging them to become part of a `market economy’. This market economy, though still modest in size, would also lead to an energy revolution, with the widespread use of mills for industrial purposes, eventually creating a world-economy on a European scale. Federigo Melis locates this first Weltwirtschaft within the polygon Bruges- LondonLisbon-Fez- Damascus- Azov-Venice, an area taking in the 300 or so trading cities to and from which the 153,000 letters in the archives of Francesco di Marco Datini, the merchant of Prato, were dispatched. Heinrich Bechtel23 speaks of a quadrilateral: Lisbon- Alexandria- Novgorod-Bergen. Fritz ROrig,24 the first historian to give the meaning ‘world- economy’ to the German word Weltwirtschaft, suggests that its eastern frontier was a line running from Greater Novgorod on lake Ilmen, to Byzantium. The intensity and volume of trade all contributed to the economic unity of this vast area.
Towns
The town consolidated its future with its roads, its markets, its workshops and the money that accumulated within its walls. Its markets ensured its food supply, as peasants came to town with their daily produce: ‘The markets offered an outlet for the growing surpluses of the lordly domains, and for the huge amounts of produce resulting from the payment of dues in kind’.13 According to B. H. Slicher van Bath, after about 115o, Europe moved beyond ‘direct agricultural consumption’, i.e. self- sufficiency, to the stage of ‘indirect agricultural consumption’ created by the marketing of surplus rural production.” At the same time, the town attracted all the skilled crafts, creating for itself a monopoly of the manufacture and marketing of industrial products. Only later would pre-industry move back into the countryside.
In short, ‘economic life . . . especially after the thirteenth century, began to take precedence over the [earlier] agrarian aspects of the towns’.15 Over a very wide area, the crucial move was made from a domestic to a market economy. In other words, the towns were beginning to tower above their rural surroundings and to look beyond their immediate horizons. This was a ‘great leap forward’, the first in the series that created European society and launched it on its successful career.” There is only one event even remotely comparable to this: the creation by the first European settlers in America of the many transit-towns, linked to each other by the road and by the requirements of commerce, command and defence.

This age marked Europe’s true Renaissance (for all the ambiguity of the word) two or three hundred years before the traditional Renaissance of the fifteenth century.

相关阅读3 Alfred Stieglitz

Early in the twentieth century a new spirit appeared in American life… It was a spirit of change, of dissent–in some minds, the spirit even of revolution. Predominantly it was an upsurge of hopefulness. New directions seemed possible not only in politics and the arts, but also in the quality of life as a whole. Institutions and established ways were subjected to a critical scrutiny that had been rare in the previous generation… Experiment replaced acquiescence to a received tradition as defined by genteel ‘custodians of culture.’
–Alan Trachtenberg
Critics of Culture: Literature and Society in the Early 20th Century

This “new spirit” is perhaps more pertinent to a biography of Alfred Stieglitz than to the life and work of any of his contemporaries working in the arts. The span of Alfred Stieglitz’s life, 1864 to 1946, saw some of the most rapid and radical transformations ever to occur in the landscape of American society and culture. Stieglitz witnessed New York transform from a sleeping giant of cobblestone streets and horse-drawn trolleys to a vibrant symbol of the modern metropolis, with soaring skyscrapers becoming visible emblems of a new age. Alfred Stieglitz’s seminal role as artist and art impresario at a time when American culture was redefining its fundamental ways of seeing, thinking and experiencing the world is the subject of the first full-length film biography of the photographer “Alfred Stieglitz – The Eloquent Eye.” The time is ripe for a major reevaluation of Stieglitz as a photographer, a seminal influence in the arts of the first decades of the century, and as an important interpreter of the emerging modern culture. There is a need to free Stieglitz from the myths–pro and con–that have engulfed him. Stieglitz’s own photographs, and the wide influence of his ideas and activity on photographers, artists, writers and art institutions in the first four decades of the century, define him as a singular shaping force for a new American vision of the arts and culture.

The body of photography that represents Stieglitz’s achievement as an artist was appraised by fellow photographer Edward Steichen as “like none ever made by any other photographer.” The film not only presents some of the most famous Stieglitz pictures, such as “The Terminal”, “The Steerage” and the O’Keeffe portraits, but will give viewers a rare opportunity to see some of the impressive lesser-known photographs, from early images of European peasant life to the late views of New York’s skyscrapers seen from Stieglitz’s window. Stieglitz’s portraits of artists and friends from the ‘291’ period and the subsequent galleries comprise a beautiful and moving record of many of the key figures in Stieglitz’s life and in the art world of the time. By choosing striking and representative images from the different phases of Stieglitz’s career, the film reveals the evolution of Stieglitz as an artist who chronicled the transformation of American society. The strong photographic values regarding subject, composition, tone et. al. formulated early in Stieglitz’s career can be perceived throughout these phases. Some of the great works in the history of modern photography–many made by Stieglitz’s close associates such as Frank Eugene, Clarence H. White and Edward Steichen–will also be shown as the story of modern photography’s history unfolds.

An examination of the evolution of modern photography and of the impact of the medium on the American sensibility opens a window onto many crucial cultural developments of the time. By examining the creative output of the period and the public’s response to it, the photographs become both gauge and index of the public’s and the artists’ responses to the changes going on around them. One can examine the ascendance of the machine, the explosion of urbanization, changes in social attitudes and mores, and the drive for an indigenous modern American culture–all of which often involved a growing tension between the prescriptions of commerce and culture. America also began a new relationship with Europe in which this country was no longer regarded as an isolated anomaly in relation to the rest of Western civilization. As one can see, Stieglitz’s involvement in this dialogue between artist and culture was central enough for cultural historian Bram Dijkstra to write that “it was Stieglitz who… provided the essential example of the means by which the artist could reach out to a new, more accurate mode of representing the world of experience.”

相关阅读4: bats and their roosts

Bat Roosts

Natter's bat roosting in a building (Surrey Bat Group)The place a bat lives is called its roost. Bats need different roosting condition at different times of the year, and will often move around on a regular basis to find the condition that meets their needs.

In summer, for example, female bats need warm safe places to have their babies. These are called maternity roosts. In winter, when bats go into hibernation, they need a cooler, constant temperature and so often move into underground sites, such as caves. Find out more about the yearly cycle of a bat.

All UK bats eat insects, and so roosts should be near good foraging habitats, such as pasture, woodlands or water.

Bats also need to be able to travel safely between their roost and foraging habitat. Bats navigate in the dark using a sonar system called echolocation, which requires objects for their calls to bounce off, so roosts tend to be near things such as hedgerows, treelines, or rivers, which allow them to travel more safely. Open spaces are more dangerous for bats, as it leaves them open to predation.

Bats have been discovered roosting in all sorts of places, but there are three broad roost types that are the most common.

Built structures

Brown long-eared bats on timber (JJ Kaczanow)All our British bat species will make use of buildings on occasion, but for some species, buildings are essential as roost sites. This situation has arisen over a long period of time as tree cover and availability of caves which would have provided natural roost sites have become scarce and long ago bat species adapted to share our built structures, whether it be older properties, modern houses, bridges, barns or churches.

TreesA Bechsietin's bat roost in a tree (JJ Kaczanow)

Around three quarters of British bat species are known to roost in trees. The remaining species could also use trees but because of a lack of suitable and available habitat many bats choose to favour man-made structures.

Trees provide bats with adequate shelter and attract a diverse range of insect species for them to feed on. Since bats are not able to bore holes or make nests they will use whatever gaps are made available to them by other animals or by the natural decay of the wood or from arboricultural methods.

Bats may use different parts of the tree depending on time of the year and temperature and for different reasons. For example in the summer they may use the higher canopy sites to have their young in warmer temperatures but in winter may go deeper and lower into the tree.

Species of tree such as oak, beech and ash are particularly suitable but any tree has potential for a bat roost if there are hollows in the trunk or in branches, woodpecker holes, loose bark, cracks, splits, thick ivy and root cavities. It is hard to locate a tree roost especially when looking from the ground so when planning to fell or prune a tree expert advice is required.

Underground Sites

Hibernating Brandt's bats (Anita Glover)Bats hibernate where they are less likely to be disturbed by light, noise and predators in underground sites including caves, mines, cellars, and service tunnels. Such sites are often referred to as hibernacula and provide the optimum humidity and stable low temperature which the bats require during the winter. Some bats also use underground roosts during the night in summer for feeding or for mating. Of all UK species, greater and lesser horsehoe bats rely most heavily on caves for roost sites.

 

相关阅读5

Literary realism most often refers to the trend, beginning with certain works of nineteenth-century French literature and extending to late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century authors in various countries, towards depictions of contemporary life and society “as they were.” In the spirit of general “realism,” Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. Jorge Luis Borges, in an essay entitled “The Scandinavian Destiny”, attributed the earliest discovery of Realism in literature to the Northmen in the Icelandic Sagas, although it was soon lost by them along with the continent of North America.

Modernism

Main article: Modernist literature

The movement known as English literary modernism grew out of a general sense of disillusionment with Victorian era attitudes of certainty, conservatism, and objective truth. The movement was greatly influenced by the ideas of Romanticism, Karl Marx‘s political writings, and the psychoanalytic theories of subconscious – Sigmund Freud. The continental art movements of Impressionism, and later Cubism, were also important inspirations for modernist writers.

James Joyce, 1918

Although literary modernism reached its peak between the First and Second World Wars, the earliest examples of the movement’s attitudes appeared in the mid to late 19th century. Gerard Manley Hopkins, A. E. Housman, and the poet and novelist Thomas Hardy represented a few of the major early modernists writing in England during the Victorian period.

The first decades of the 20th century saw several major works of modernism published, including the seminal short story collection Dubliners by James Joyce, Joseph Conrad‘s Heart of Darkness, and the poetry and drama of William Butler Yeats. Joyce’s magnum opus Ulysses, is arguably the most important work of Modernist literature, and has been referred to as “a demonstration and summation of the entire movement”.[6] It is an interpretation of the Odyssey set in Dublin, and culminates in Finnegans Wake.

Important novelists between the World Wars included Virginia Woolf, E. M. Forster, Evelyn Waugh, P.G. Wodehouse and D. H. Lawrence. Woolf was an influential feminist, and a major stylistic innovator associated with the stream-of-consciousness technique. Her 1929 novel A Room of One’s Own contains her famous dictum; “A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction”.[7] T. S. Eliot was the preeminent English poet of the period. Across the Atlantic writers like William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, and the poets Wallace Stevens and Robert Frost developed a more American take on the modernist aesthetic in their work.

Important in the development of the modernist movement was the American poet Ezra Pound. Credited with “discovering” both T. S. Eliot and James Joyce, Pound also advanced the cause of imagism and free verse. Gertrude Stein, an American expat, was also an enormous literary force during this time period, famous for her line “Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose.”

Other notable writers of this period included H.D., Marianne Moore, Elizabeth Bishop, W. H. Auden, Vladimir Nabokov, William Carlos Williams, Ralph Ellison, Dylan Thomas, R.S. Thomas and Graham Greene. However, some of these writers are more closely associated with what has become known as post-modernism, a term often used to encompass the diverse range of writers who succeeded the modernists.

Post-modern literature

Main article: Postmodern literature

The term Postmodern literature is used to describe certain tendencies in post-World War II literature. It is both a continuation of the experimentation championed by writers of the modernist period (relying heavily, for example, on fragmentation, paradox, questionable narrators, etc.) and a reaction against Enlightenment ideas implicit in Modernist literature. Postmodern literature, like postmodernism as a whole, is difficult to define and there is little agreement on the exact characteristics, scope, and importance of postmodern literature. Henry Miller, William S. Burroughs, Joseph Heller, Kurt Vonnegut, Hunter S. Thompson, Truman Capote, Thomas Pynchon.

 

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