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6-7月预测机经之091031NA

2011-06-28 05:10 作者: 来源: 本站 浏览: 1,049 views 我要评论 字号:

摘要: 2009年10月31日北美机经: 阅读   第一篇   关于什么地理影响对美国的经济影响什么的,洛基山脉的作用,冰川的形成和退却对土壤的影响云云。   第二篇   关于theater的好处,什么演员和观众互动,能激起观众共鸣,然后是现场的,比较能调动激动的情绪...

2009年10月31日北美机经:

阅读
  第一篇
  关于什么地理影响对美国的经济影响什么的,洛基山脉的作用,冰川的形成和退却对土壤的影响云云。
  第二篇
  关于theater的好处,什么演员和观众互动,能激起观众共鸣,然后是现场的,比较能调动激动的情绪等等。
  是说THEATRE和电影的不同, THEATRE 有LIVE PEFORMANCE, 观众有回馈,有互动。
  第三篇
  关于vienn什么城市,反正是意大利某城市,从要进口盐到交易盐,到控制世界各国的盐市场
  关于土地,mechanical weathering和chmeical weathering之类的。
  还有一篇怎么也想不起来了。
  听力
  第一篇
  1,一个学生要申请study abroad program,春季已经过了deadline了,秋季他没空去,建议夏季的,他有点犹豫,觉得自己刚刚转系到德语系,和老师不熟云云的。
  第二篇
  2.关于计算机设计,老的设计注重memory speed什么的,新的要注重personal use,要设计的让用的人舒服之类的。
  第三篇
  一个是讲 silk road来讲business history,说什么international trade很早就有了,有个男生问为什么交silk road,然后professor就讲了一大堆关于china卖silk为主,然后professor还说觉得应该叫china trade road,还说silk road 促进了banking,credit等等,还有个女同学问商人们不会迷路吗,等等吧
  第四篇
  4一个女生和导师讨论reasearch关于一家工厂关了对neighbor的影响什么的
  第五篇
  5.the history of art,现代画对女性的影响,有些人不喜欢现代画什么的
  第六篇 加试
  6.能量守恒定理在生物界被认识和承认,开始生物学家认为这个只是物理的定理,后来在生物中也成立,能量是食物转换的什么的。
  第七篇
  加试是一个男同学要打印color材料,但是之前他忘记填哪些需要color了,就是有张form 没有complete(考点),然后现在打也来不及,他要马上用于小组讨论,然后stuff问他一定要那么多么,他说professor要两张,其他。。。最后好像打了一张,还是怎么的,忘了
口语
  Task 1
  Describe a person who alway makes you laugh. Explain why the person is funny. Include details and examples in your explanation.
  Task 2
  Some people prefer to live in a place most of their life. Other people prefer to move to different places. Which do you prefer and why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your response.
  Task 3
  【公开信】:有个学生写信给校报建议给一些住off campus同学loudge/LOCKER放书。这么做的好处1、书多,拿来拿去去麻烦。好处2、顺便张贴重要信息。
  【学生议论】:男生反对。理由1、寝室dorm也离教室很远,有住寝室的同学也要一直把书搬来搬去。理由2、信息可以通过别的途径看。问:男生对此建议的态度和理由。
  Task 4
  4.natural passengerway,动物可以找到natural passengerway在被人类隔断的area之间move around
  Task 5
  【学生困难】:女生所在的RADIO CLUB要招新,负责招聘的同学病了,不能去明天的CLUB AFFAIR了
  【解决方案】:女生自己说出两个方案。方案1、自己去,但是有group meeting。方案2、她室友愿意帮她,但是她室友不是RADIO club member。。问女学生有什么问题?对这两种solution你更赞成哪一个?为什么?,生想,
  Task 6
  mermory gap。一种是记的时候信息就是错的,一种别人误导。
  写作
  综合作文
  hydroelectronic的好处,lecture反驳了三点。cost也不省的,二氧化碳照样有,也不不是保护所有鱼类的
  阅读部分是讲个HYDROELECTRIC DAM的,文章里说他有很多好处,
  1LOW COST
  2污染少,
  3 对动物危害小
  听力里的PROFESSOR 是反对的,说建造DAM前期的费用很大,所以不是LOW COST. 还有DAM会使PLANTS DECAY, 这DECAY会产生很多CO2, 对动物危害很大,有些鱼游不上去就死了.
  reading: hydroelectric power plants three advantages
  1 low cost
  2 low pollution
  3 the water paths protect wildlife
  lecture: disagree
  1. account of the research cost for selecting location and buliting cost, the cost of hydrelectric plants is not low
  2. hydroelectric plants produce the same amount of greenhouse gases as fossil fuel plant do
  3, water pathes cannot protect all fishes, an example in England, a kind of fish cannot use the water path as salmon do
  独立写作
  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
  It is often not a good thing to move to a new city or a new country because of the lose of old friends?
…………………………………………………………………………………………..
必读背景知识:

USA

The US has a head start over most other economies due to its fortunate geographic structure. It has big natural ports on the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the longest network of navigable rivers in the world, gigantic arable landmasses, and more.

The Midwest is the breadbasket not only of the US but also of the world. This quality land has the good fortune of being linked into the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and Red rivers.

This natural transportation system is free. While other countries have to invest billions to build and maintain such networks, the US has capital to spend elsewhere, almost guaranteeing its long-term wealth. Early on, the US used that capital to build an incomparable road-and-rail network, fueling western expansion to the Pacific.
Its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, suffer from geographic barriers that mean neither is much of an economic or physical threat. They both lack comprehensive river networks, are both mountainous, and are either too hot or too cold.

Such geographic differences mean that the US borders need not be protected much at all. Most of the Canadian border is unguarded forest and meadows, and the Mexican border is only a fence, with limited patrols.

So the government can let economic forces prevail on their own, as there are no immediate threats. There is no reason for the military to be on edge at home, and thus no need to implore banks and businesses to work in a way to protect the 50 states.

………………….

By 548 A.D. Venice was powerful enough that the Emperor Justinian in Constantinople sought the aid of Venice in his war in Italy against the Lombards. From the security of their location the Venetians could shift from being refugees to being aggressors. They began to take control of trade in the Adriatic Sea. They were not without competitors and they had to contend with pirates on the Dalmatian coast across the Adriatic from Italy.

The Venetians suppressed the pirates and established trading stations where the pirates had their bases. They were called colonies but they were in actuality conquered territories inhabited by Slavs that from time to time rebelled against Venetian control.

The rule of the Venetian Republic was unique. While Venice was no democracy there was a concerted attempt to maintain a degree of equality. The city’s administrators were selected from a designated elite but any attempt on the part of these administrators to aggrandize power was severely punished. The top leader was called the Doge, a president elected for life by an elaborate set of four stages of selections of electorates. Each electorate selected by vote the electorate to select the next stage until the fourth stage in which an electorate of 41 chose the Doge (duke) of Venice. The business of the government of Venice was business.

…………………………………..

The value of salt as a commodity has been known throughout history. It is very concentrated; being the source of the essential minerals sodium and chlorine. Salt is a biological necessity, proven by the evolutionary development of a specific set of taste buds to detect and enjoy it. When a human being perspires, he loses some of his natural body salts and these have to replaced from the food he eats (Tann. 179). The want of salt far exceeds the need the body has for its ingestion. It is estimated that the average person consumes more than twenty-five times the necessary amount of salt. It is likely that this craving for salt brought about its’ organized production.

Salt-winning is the term for the deliberate production of salt from seawater. Salt collection from naturally occurring sources was undoubtedly practiced for thousands of years before this process was discovered. Early in the Neolithic era, salt was used in bleaching, cleaning, and dyeing of fabric. It was also used in the degreasing, dehairing, and softening of leather, before during and after the invention of fabric. The early Romans used salt as money, (salarium = salt money or salt rations) though this practice was short lived. The Latin Words for “well-being” salus, and for “health,” salubritas, both derive from the Latin sal, meaning “salt” (Schi. p.3).

Salt has been documented for medical, sacred, and culinary purposes, by many different sources. Salts worth as a medicine is praised by Claudius Galen (Galen of Pergamom A.D.E. 129-199), who recommended that one consume moderate amounts of salt food to encourage a flagging appetite. Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus A.D.E. 23-79, Aug.24) is noted as saying that the gods were especially fond of salt, hence their devotees presented it as an offering. This faded with time and a new fad arose of using perfumes. This was a sign of the intrusion of eastern customs and religions into the culture of the Greco-Roman world. Plutarch (Plutarchos A.D.E. 146-119) wrote: “First there is salt without which practically nothing is eatable.” He also calls it a requisite to good dining. Ancient Greek coastal cities traded salt for slaves with their inland city-states. The need for salt inland grew as the sphere of Roman influence increased.

In the fifth century Cassiodorus (a Goth administrator) stated “It may be that some seek not gold, but there lives not a man that does not need salt.” (Molm. 14-17). Salt became an international trade item as early as the Sixth century. The first salt monopoly is connected to the conquests of King Ancus Marcius (641-616 B.C.E.). He is recorded as establishing saltworks at Ostia on both sides of the Tiber river. The Roman government ceased control of these operations in 506 B.C.E. and banned all private salt production. Medieval Europe inherited the ideology of salt monopolies and taxes from the Romans. Salt was called the chief article of Venetian commerce and was produced in Murano and Chioggia. The Venetians had managed to make salt a major source of state revenue by controlling the trade.

Written evidence of salt production, trade and taxation during the Middle Ages is found in ecclesiastical records. This is congruent with most other aspects of Medieval history as the Church seems to have had influence everywhere. Salt making is historically one of the first monastic industries. Several Bishops of Salzburg became veritable entrepreneurs from the development of the salt trade and taxation.

In the early 12th century Venice became more a trader then producer and asserted control over the salt trade. Venice held the control of salt in the Mediterranean until the emergence of Genoa as an important trading city. Medieval Arabic cookery, with its leaning toward the sweet, had an effect upon the saltiness of European cuisine. This was one of many possible reasons that contributed to the unsalting of Europe during the early middle ages. When and why the waning of the use of salt occurred is different for various reasons. Cost, adherence to the whims of the crown, different cultures and geographical locations, all may have played a part.

The High Middle Ages saw an elimination of the use of garum and liquamen (salty fish sauce) from most of Europe. While the Arabic world never totally eliminated its use. The French reinvented garum using a fish called garon and was in commercial manufacture in the south of France. This might be a direct result of the heavy taxation on salt by the French government. Charles of Anjou (1225-1285) instituted a salt tax in Provence, to finance his conquest of the Kingdom of Naples (Mult. p 13). This begins to show how important salt was to the average person.

Renaissance scholars concluded that the ancients treated salt as a sacred substance, a medicine and as a condiment. The increase in the use of salt in the Renaissance was not due to its sacred quality or its medicinal value. It was a gluttonous society that promoted salt over all other condiments as an appetite stimulant.

The gourmets of the Renaissance imitated the Ancients by increasing its repertoire of salt-acid delicacies. Renaissance diners baited their appetites with salt fish, salt meat, and salt vegetables (Rabe. 83,575-7, bks I, IV). Francois Rabelais (Alcofribas Nasier 1494- 1553, Apr. 9) wrote that Gargantua constructed a salad with oil, vinegar, and salt as an appetizer. This appears to be the first reference to salad dressings. He called fast days “jours maigres entrelardex” or “larded lean days,” for the taking of salt-acid delicacies on a fast day was a hypocrisy. Renaissance diners were so fond of gorging on salt fish and salted fish eggs that physicians condemned this passion (Platina p 265). This had little effect on the diets of the wealthy.

The fourteenth century saw a general increase in northern European trade. Salted Herring had just recently been ‘invented’ by a Dutchman, Willem Benckels and was in big demand. This new commodity switched the source of salt from the Mediterranean to more local sources in the North Sea. The sources were the coast of England and the peat bogs of Holland. Toward the end of the fourteenth century, the Dutch depleted the peat and the English were depleting the needed fire wood for salt production. The English were also concentrating their economic growth on the textile industry. This shifted the production of salt once again. This time it was to bay salt a darker (dirtier) alternative mainly from France and Spain. By the end of the Middle Ages bay salt was the principal source of supply for northern Europe.

By the mid-sixteenth century, Jean Baptiste Bruyerin wrote that salt fish was as popular in his day as it was in ancient times. The types having been altered with time. There being a greater variety available now, for the gourmet to enjoy. In particular Bruyerin points out that the ancient did not have; “…herring, sturgeon eggs [caviar], botargo [other fish eggs] and other items brought from constantinople to Italy.” The spread of salt fish spread from Italy to France and was well received. Guido Panciroli claimed that caviar and botargo were being used in place of garum. It is odd though that Messisbugo and Scappi, two famous cooks of the day, do not use this substitution in their cookbooks. The late sixteenth century saw the spread of salt fish preparations into England. Caviar was being imported into Europe by the fourteenth century (Balducci, 103)

Salted meat became the standard rather than the exception. Bruyerin states that meat that has not been sprinkled with salt and is recently slaughtered will cause stomach upset and slow digestion. He goes on to state that beef is better with moderate salting. Louis Nonnius disagreed; by the next century he could report that much more fresh beef was eaten than fresh pork, which was not eaten by ‘elegant people’.” (Pete, 140)

Salted vegetables were enjoyed by both the powerful and commoner alike by the late sixteenth century. The modern cornichons of France are a left over of this time period. Cornichons are tiny cucumbers preserved in a salt and vinegar brine. Olives became very popular and became a much larger import than in ancient times. Salted capers became a table snack for stimulating the appetite. Nonnius wrote that artichokes “ought to be eaten with oil, garum, and coriander,” but “some eat artichokes with salt only.” (Nonnius p 408) He further wrote of capers and olives being used “…to incite much drinking.”

It seems as though salt has lost some of its prominence. Going from gift to the gods to seasoning that even a peasant would not be with out. But this has not diminished its use for as of 1973 World salt production was 165 billion kilograms; with an average household consumption of 7.5 kilograms per year. This breaks down to between 6 and 15 grams a day. This is almost 25 times the sodium needed along with more than enough chlorine, which is an important constituent of our gastric juice (and fluid regulator). With these figures, it is safe to say that salt is still the most widely used flavoring agent in the world.

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