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6-7月预测机经之100116NA

2011-06-23 09:29 作者: 来源: 本站 浏览: 1,418 views 我要评论(2条) 字号:

摘要: 第一篇关于工业, 第一段讲十八世纪以前能量效率极低,直到使用了charcoal才使蒸汽机的使用成为可能(有一题问作者在这里提到的问题是什么,我选的能量不够,好像是,记不清)。 (好像是第二段)然后交通开始发展,让远距离运输货物成为可能(这里有一题),从而使贸易...

第一篇关于工业,

第一段讲十八世纪以前能量效率极低,直到使用了charcoal才使蒸汽机的使用成为可能(有一题问作者在这里提到的问题是什么,我选的能量不够,好像是,记不清)。 (好像是第二段)然后交通开始发展,让远距离运输货物成为可能(这里有一题),从而使贸易能够到达偏远地区,然后铁路的发展使很多农村人口在这里临时工作,当工作结束后,这些人口就到城里去寻找工作,加入工人大军。

接着:蒸汽机使棉花大规模生产成为可能,尤其是不列颠,从1800到1850(年份可能不准,凑合着看哈)棉花原料进口增加了100+倍,然后棉花服装成为主要出口,占到出口一半以上。接着是钢铁,蒸汽机提高了生铁生产效率,同时使精铁生产成为可能,然后1840不列颠的钢铁产量比世界上其他国家加起来都多。(这里好像有两题,有一题我选的不列颠是世界第一钢铁大国)

版本二:

一。工业** 以及英国工业**的发展~

1、问了工业**之前 有个energy shortage~因为还没开始**所以没那么多燃料需求““`加上上文又说~以前的energy是动物推动的~或者人力推动~所以这题应该选那个~动物和人不是超人““`不能无休止干下去“`

2、文中提到英国很多煤炭的作用 因为后面有个however““`所以应该是说~英国的之前工业发展不好有别的原因~(从而引出第二段~~~伟大的蒸汽机出现了!)

3、有问 当时英国最大的出口商品是什么 答案~羊毛衫~~~~~~

第二篇讲沙漠植动物。

先讲水对植物的作用。很多作用。同时决定植物的分布,雨林比沙漠多100倍,同时沙漠的植物分布也由水分决定。(有一题,我选。。。忘了)有两大类沙漠植物,一种是年生植物,它们在雨量充足的年份发芽,狂长(有一词汇题,我选狂长)它们的种子散布在沙漠中,到下一个雨量充足的年份才发芽,不然就睡在那里(有题,如前所述)。还有一种植物就有很多种方法来对付干旱,啥米针叶啊, 闭毛孔啊(叶子上的那些洞洞),枝干木化防止挂掉啊(有一题选这个,因为它被算到上一类植物头上了,而且意思相反),还有发达的根系但地上露出来的部分比较小(有题,如前)。还有一种可以把根扎到地下水那里去,所以这种植物都长水源附近(有题)。

然后动物,两种方法,escape和retreat, escape时间比较长,而且有好几种,比如身体降温使新城代谢变慢(只是一种方法,有paraphrase题),还有迁徙(还有一题,忘了)。retreat一般是跑到阴凉的地方去乘凉,列举了几种动物的避暑地点(有题问这些地点的共同特点是什么。。。是人都知道)后来讲到鸵鸟,可以把羽毛竖起来隔热(有题)

版本二、沙漠动植物

动植物在沙漠各有方法~动物有2种~一种自我调节~比如一种BT鸟““`它BT的羽毛可以stand up 然后cover the back~很厚,所以隔热,(有题)~还有一种就是escape~比如逃到阴凉的地方(有题~~~)植物也是2种~一种是雷锋式的annual~意思是生命很短暂~伟大的地方在于~一干旱~就会develop XXX(副词 词汇题之一 选项有early sudden 但我选的是第三个,一个到现在都不知道意思的词 and 大量开花结果~(因为有and 表示并列关系 所以词汇题没有选前面两个) 这样seed都会埋在地下~等下雨~再开始爆发`很伟大阿,另一种就是俗称牛B型的,因为它可以一直生存““特点~地表植被很少~水分都藏在tissue ~而且根很深~主要在水源附近~~(有一道题是说这植物的特点~比较迷惑的选项是说它们都长在lake river周围获得水源“,但文中说他主要靠的是地下水~所以应该排除)~

第三篇苏美尔文明,但不是加试

一开始讲了困难的自然条件:缺少木材什么的,每年雪融化造成洪灾,还有一个忘了(有题选哪个不是困难,选项忘了),然后这个文明很猛,发明了很牛的灌溉系统,农业大发展。

然后讲城市的建立。城市围绕寺庙建立(有题),然后说了两个城市, 一个城市有两只神,分别掌管不同的东东(有一个词汇题,不认识。。。囧)

然后是说城市的居民很多样(有题,还有个插句子题),然后将管理系统的复杂导致了文字的产生(有题),文字从一个图形代表一个词汇发展成代表一个音节,从而提高了效率,从2000个减少到600个(有题)。文字的主要用途是经济(有题),但也导致了文学啥米的产生。

然后将了轮子的发明,最先可能用作制陶(有题)。然后是bronze的发现,把一种什么铜(很熟悉的一个词,就是想不起来)和锡混合(有个paraphrase题)。其它忘了

版本二:Sumer~也就是苏美尔,不是加试比加试那个难很多三篇最难!

1、说2个地方的similar处 应该是 都有religion建筑~

2、又说语言进化了~通过研究~好像某个数字~大概是平常用的字数~从2000下降到600~原因就是以前都是遇到事物都会用特定的词~后来文化发展了~开始用简单的词形容别的事物~(有题)

3、阴影句子意思~就是一个金属是3500BC就发现了~但到了3000BC才有人想到加入别的东西~最后~~~就是伟大的brozne

听力:
1. 一个女学生想开办自己的家教生意,就去找学生中心的一个男的(主旨题),
然后那男的说了几种广告的方法,一种是stick note(其实我压根就没听到
这个东东,不过要考,大家注意听)还有一种是发pencil(有题问pencil 的
缺点,双选),另一种是bussiness card(貌似是),然后讲了一坨话介绍,
然后女孩提到她的朋友自己设计了那个card,然后男的告诉她比较贵(有重
听题,我选的担心很贵)
2. 航空学,讲的彗星的轨道(主旨),特别是哈雷彗星,。其他题:1 彗星
的轨道是不断变化的。2 彗星可能会被行星的重力捕捉3 哈雷经常溜达到
太阳系外面,所以我们不能经常看到
3. 对话,女学生去找教授,开始说了志愿者大会的事(有题,我没听清,5555),
去找教授干什么不知道,因为好像提到了要补全笔记, 然后开始讲jelly
fish, 女学生在沙滩看到它们发光(有题), 然后教授介绍了发光的功能,
沙滩上发光是为了隐藏自己(有题),然后女学生问能不能把这个作为论文
题材,然后教授说了一坨思路。。。其他的不太记得了
4. lecture 讲的zinc 和另一种元素,它们是动植物转化CO2 的酶的组成部分,
www.ntoefl.com.cn 环球北美考试院主编
zinc 最普遍,在动物体内运输CO2,植物则是光合作用,但在含锌很少的水体
表层,也有水藻生存,经研究发现是另一种元素替代了锌,但这种元素有毒(这
里要注意听,有题,我不会做)。这种藻类使CO2 能进入海地(有题),同时
它们为温室效应的研究提出了新的方向(有题)
5. lecture 讲环保广告,先讲了背景(有题),然后讲了一个公司最初绿色
广告的失败(有题问为什么失败,我选的是因为没有提到长期经济效益)。然
后讲了不同环保等级(有题),然后是公司不能单单宣称自己的产品环保,公
众会发现真相的(有题)
6. 讲怎样修复艺术作品(考题,不局限于画),然后讲了阿基米德的手稿怎
样被修复。阿基米德的手稿重要是因为这是唯一一个method 的copy(不知道
对不对,我选的),然后讲了先是有sb 因为没有写东西的媒介,在手稿上面
写自己的东西,靠。。。(考题)还有个更sb,在其中几叶上画了画,使它
看起来更古老(有个语气题,教授好像说This is history),然后用了一种
很牛的方法,好像是通过原稿墨水中的一种物质还原(有题,但提到铁,我根
本没听到铁)。
口语:
版本一:
1. describe a book you have not read but are interested in
2. do you prefer to take your cellphone always with you or not
3. 一个sb 建议取消学生开学和advisor 的见面,理由1:advisor 能提供的
信息网上都有2:如果取消了,advisor 的schedul 就不会那么满了,所以可
以讨论其他事猛男登场:不同意1:advisor 可以提供更多信息2,只要预约
地够早,就不存在问题
4. 就是这篇死机,太阳。阅读介绍了一种雨林中的寄生植物,然后听力一
部分讲了它有个碗状构造,可以接水也可以接动植物残骸,
www.ntoefl.com.cn 环球北美考试院主编
5. 一个人要演奏,但学校的礼堂在周末都被预约了。解决方法1 在周三晚上
演奏,但观众可能不多: 2 和另一个乐队一起演奏,但时间紧张
6. 讲了包装盒的两种改进方法:一种是弄得更方便,一种是弄得更美观
版本二:
1、最想看的但还没看过的书“本来想说OG“但发现太大逆不道了“于是说国
富论
2、偷听到了~就是人们应该把手机随身带着`还是放别的地方而不整天待身上
3、2 个人讨论~报纸上说~要取消一个座谈会~大概就是advisor 和学生交流~
关于选什么课的~原因是很难定时间来满足双方~然后男的说~这做法不好因
为网上信息不全~人们很难交流哪个课很好该选哪个~还有就是~上网报名人
太多了~到了那天~大家都上去~校园网受不了~ 最后问男生看法
4、男生有个乐队准备开歌唱女生就觉得这个主意很好但男的说有2 个方
案要不就是自己开但只有周三有场子怕人少~要不就是和另一个乐队一起
在周末搞~你一半我一半这样,然后题目问你是赞成哪一种方案
5、说到了销售~开头就是我们卖的不仅仅是产品讲2 种做法~能attract 消费
者~比如包装用玻璃~看得清楚~或者加些小玩意~这个拿cookies 举例问的是
教授介绍了哪2 种方法
6、是词汇很难的植物题先给文章说一种植物在雨林怎么生存然后是lecture
说的另一植物有同样的特点比如get suport from the trees~这样可以长高
(所以肯定是藤蔓类的)阳光就可以照到~还有一个就是他们的shape~可以储
存rain water 这样有需要的时候就能够用,最后问通过对第二种的描述,说说
第一种在雨林生存有哪些特点.
写作:
www.ntoefl.com.cn 环球北美考试院主编
综合作文:
版本一:
讨论一个民族改变打猎采集的习惯改为农业的理由
注定要sb 的reading:1:因为发现农业效率更高2 因为气候改变3 因为人
口增长
永远彪悍的lecture: 1:研究发现采集的效率其实更高2 气候同时变冷了,
不利于农业发展3 人口增长是农业发展的结果而非原因
版本二:
第一题
关于一个民族~以前是打猎的后来就变farming 了
材料说:教授说
1、他们发现打猎费力所以选择farming 研究发现打猎更省力
2、气候变了水源少了所以只能在水源附近定居—气候的却变了但同时温
度下降很多所以更难种植
3、人口多了打猎不够吃~所以选择种植—研究发现是先改变了生活方式~由
于中只要很多劳动力所以人口才上升
独立作文
版本一:
children should choose the jobs similar to their parents’ or choose the jobs different
from their parents
版本二:
do you agree with this statement: It is better for children to choose the jobs of their
parents

………………………………………..

本套机经背景阅读材料1
Most products people in the industrialized nations use today are turned out swiftly by the process of mass production, by people (and sometimes, robots) working on assembly lines using power-driven machines. People of ancient and medieval times had no such products. They had to spend long, tedious hours of hand labor even on simple objects. The energy, or power, they employed in work came almost wholly from their own and animals’ muscles. The Industrial Revolution is the name given the movement in which machines changed people’s way of life as well as their methods of manufacture.

About the time of the American Revolution, the people of England began to use machines to make cloth and steam engines to run the machines. A little later they invented locomotives. Productivity began a spectacular climb. By 1850 most Englishmen were laboring in industrial towns and Great Britain had become the workshop of the world. From Britain the Industrial Revolution spread gradually throughout Europe and to the United States.

Changes That Led to the Revolution

The most important of the changes that brought about the Industrial Revolution were (1) the invention of machines to do the work of hand tools; (2) the use of steam, and later of other kinds of power, in place of the muscles of human beings and of animals; and (3) the adoption of the factory system.

It is almost impossible to imagine what the world would be like if the effects of the Industrial Revolution were swept away. Electric lights would go out. Automobiles and airplanes would vanish. Telephones, radios, and television would disappear Most of the abundant stocks on the shelves of department stores would be gone. The children of the poor would have little or no schooling and would work from dawn to dark on the farm or in the home. Before machines were invented, work by children as well as by adults was needed in order to provide enough food, clothing, and shelter for all.

The Industrial Revolution came gradually. It happened in a short span of time, however, when measured against the centuries people had worked entirely by hand. Until John Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733 and James Hargreaves the spinning jenny 31 years later, the making of yarn and the weaving of cloth had been much the same for thousands of years. By 1800 a host of new and faster processes were in use in both manufacture and transportation.

This relatively sudden change in the way people live deserves to be called a revolution. It differs from a political revolution in its greater effects on the lives of people and in not coming to an end, as, for example, did the French Revolution.

Instead, the Industrial Revolution grew more powerful each year as new inventions and manufacturing processes added to the efficiency of machines and increased productivity. Indeed, since World War I the mechanization of industry has increased so enormously that another revolution in production is taking place

Expanding Commerce Affects Industry

Commerce and industry have always been closely related. Sometimes one is ahead and sometimes the other, but the one behind is always trying to catch up. Beginning in about 1400, world commerce grew and changed so greatly that writers sometimes use the term “commercial revolution” to describe the economic progress of the next three and a half centuries.

Many factors helped bring about this revolution in trade. The Crusades opened up the riches of the East to Western Europe. America was discovered, and European nations began to acquire rich colonies there and elsewhere. New trade routes were opened. The strong central governments which replaced the feudal system began to protect and help their merchants. Trading firms, such as the British East India Company, were chartered by governments. Larger ships were built, and flourishing cities grew up.

With the expansion of trade, more money was needed. Large-scale commerce could not be carried on by barter, as much of the earlier trade had been. Gold and silver from the New World helped meet this need. Banks and credit systems developed. By the end of the 17th century Europe had a large accumulation of capital. Money had to be available before machinery and steam engines could come into wide use for they were costly to manufacture and install.

By 1750 large quantities of goods were being exchanged among the European nations, and there was a demand for more goods than were being produced. England was the leading commercial nation, and the manufacture of cloth was its leading industry.

Organizing Production

Several systems of making goods had grown up by the time of the Industrial Revolution. In country districts families produced most of the food, clothing, and other articles they used, as they had done for centuries. In the cities merchandise was made in shops much like those of the medieval craftsmen, and manufacturing was strictly regulated by the guilds and by the government. The goods made in these shops, though of high quality, were limited and costly.

The merchants needed cheaper items, as well as larger quantities, for their growing trade. As early as the 15th century they already had begun to go outside the cities, beyond the reach of the hampering regulations, and to establish another system of producing goods.

From Cottage Industry to Factory

Cloth merchants, for instance, would buy raw wool from the sheep owners, have it spun into yarn by farmers’ wives, and take it to country weavers to be made into textiles. These country weavers could manufacture the cloth more cheaply than city craftsmen could because they got part of their living from their gardens or small farms.

The merchants would then collect the cloth and give it out again to finishers and dyers. Thus they controlled clothmaking from start to finish. Similar methods of organizing and controlling the process of manufacture came to prevail in other industries, such as the nail, cutlery, and leather goods.

Some writers call this the putting-out system. Others call it the domestic system because the work was done in the home (“domestic” comes from the Latin word for home). Another term is cottage industry, for most of the workers belonged to the class of farm laborers known as cotters and carried on the work in their cottages.

This system of industry had several advantages over older systems. It gave the merchant a large supply of manufactured articles at a low price. It also enabled him to order the particular kinds of items that he needed for his markets. It provided employment for every member of a craft worker’s family and gave jobs to skilled workers who had no capital to start businesses for themselves. A few merchants who had enough capital had gone a step further. They brought workers together under one roof and supplied them with spinning wheels and looms or with the implements of other trades. These establishments were factories, though they bear slight resemblance to the factories of today.

Why the Revolution Began in England

English merchants were leaders in developing a commerce which increased the demand for more goods. The expansion in trade had made it possible to accumulate capital to use in industry. A cheaper system of production had grown up which was largely free from regulation.

There also were new ideas in England which aided the movement. One of these was the growing interest in scientific investigation and invention. Another was the doctrine of laissez-faire, or letting business alone. This doctrine had been growing in favor throughout the 18th century. It was especially popular after the British economist Adam Smith argued powerfully for it in his great work ‘The Wealth of Nations’ (1776).

For centuries the craft guilds and the government had controlled commerce and industry down to the smallest detail. Now many Englishmen had come to believe that it was better to let business be regulated by the free play of supply and demand rather than by laws. Thus the English government for the most part kept its hands off and left business free to adopt the new inventions and the methods of production which were best suited to them.

The most important of the machines that ushered in the Industrial Revolution were invented in the last third of the 18th century. Earlier in the century, however, three inventions had been made which opened the way for the later machines. One was the crude, slow-moving steam engine built by Thomas Newcomen (1705), which was used to pump water out of mines. The second was John Kay’s flying shuttle (1733). It enabled one person to handle a wide loom more rapidly than two persons could operate it before. The third was a frame for spinning cotton thread with rollers, first set up by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt (1741). Their invention was not commercially practical, but it was the first step toward solving the problem of machine spinning.

Inventions in Textile Industry

As the flying shuttle sped up weaving, the demand for cotton yarn increased. Many inventors set to work to improve the spinning wheel. James Hargreaves, a weaver who was also a carpenter, patented his spinning jenny in 1770. It enabled one worker to run eight spindles instead of one.

About the same time Richard Arkwright developed his water frame, a machine for spinning with rollers operated by water power. In 1779 Samuel Crompton, a spinner, combined Hargreaves’ jenny and Arkwright’s roller frame into a spinning machine, called a mule. It produced thread of greater fineness and strength than the jenny or the roller frame. Since the roller frame and the mule were large and heavy, it became the practice to install them in mills, where they could be run by water power. They were tended by women and children.

These improvements in spinning machinery called for further improvements in weaving. In 1785 Edmund Cartwright patented a power loom. In spite of the need for it, weaving machinery came into use very slowly. First, many improvements had to be made before the loom was satisfactory. Second, the hand weavers violently opposed its adoption because it threw many of them out of work. Those who got jobs in the factories were obliged to take the same pay as unskilled workers. Thus they rioted, smashed the machines, and tried to prevent their use. The power loom was only coming into wide operation in the cotton industry by 1813. It did not completely replace the hand loom in weaving cotton until 1850. It was not well adapted to the making of some woolens. As late as 1880 many hand looms were still in use for weaving woolen cloth.

Many other machines contributed to the progress of the textile industry. In 1785 Thomas Bell of Glasgow invented cylinder printing of cotton goods. This was a great improvement on block printing. It made successive impressions of a design “join up” and did the work more rapidly and more cheaply. In 1793 the available supply of cotton was increased by Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin. In 1804 J.M. Jacquard, a Frenchman, perfected a loom on which patterns might be woven in fabrics by mechanical means. This loom was later adapted to the making of lace, which became available to everyone

Watt’s Steam Engine

While textile machinery was developing, progress was being made in other directions. In 1763 James Watt, a Scottish mechanic, was asked to repair a model of a Newcomen steam engine. He saw how crude and inefficient it was and by a series of improvements made it a practical device for running machinery.

Wheels turned by running water had been the chief source of power for the early factories. These were necessarily situated on swift-running streams. When the steam engine became efficient, it was possible to locate factories in more convenient places.

Coal and Iron

The first users of steam engines were the coal and iron industries. They were destined to be basic industries in the new age of machinery. As early as 1720 many steam engines were in operation. In coal mines they pumped out the water which usually flooded the deep shafts. In the iron industry they pumped water to create the draft in blast furnaces.

The iron industry benefited also from other early inventions of the 18th century. Iron was scarce and costly, and production was falling off because England’s forests could not supply enough charcoal for smelting the ore. Ironmasters had long been experimenting with coal as a fuel for smelting. Finally the Darby family, after three generations of effort, succeeded with coal that had been transformed into coke. This created a new demand for coal and laid the foundation for the British coal industry. The next great steps were taken in the 1780s, when Henry Cort developed the processes of puddling and rolling. Puddling produced nearly pure malleable iron. Hand in hand with the adoption of the new inventions went the rapid development of the factory system of manufacture.

Changing Conditions in England

The new methods increased the amount of goods produced and decreased the cost. The worker at a machine with 100 spindles on it could spin 100 threads of cotton more rapidly than 100 workers could on the old spinning wheels. Southern planters in the United States were able to meet the increased demand for raw cotton because they were using the cotton gin. This machine could do the job of 50 men in cleaning cotton. Similar improvements were being made in other lines of industry. British merchants no longer found it a problem to obtain enough goods to supply their markets. On the contrary, at times the markets were glutted with more goods than could be sold. Then mills were closed and workers were thrown out of employment.

With English factories calling for supplies, such as American cotton, and sending goods to all parts of the world, better transportation was needed. The roads of England were wretchedly poor and often impassable. Packhorses and wagons crawled along them, carrying small loads. Such slow and inadequate transportation kept the cost of goods high. Here again the need produced the invention. Thomas Telford and John MacAdam each developed a method of road construction better than any that had been known since the ancient Romans built their famous roads.

Building Canals and Railways

Many canals were dug. They connected the main rivers and so furnished a network of waterways for transporting coal and other heavy goods. A canalboat held much more than a wagon. It moved smoothly if slowly over the water, with a single horse hitched to the towline. In some places, where it was impossible to dig canals and where heavy loads of coal had to be hauled, mine owners laid down wooden or iron rails. On these early railroads one horse could haul as much coal as 20 horses could on ordinary roads.

Early in the 19th century came George Stephenson’s locomotive and Robert Fulton’s steamboat, an American invention. They marked the beginning of modern transportation on land and sea. Railroads called for the production of more goods, for they put factory-made products within reach of many more people at prices they could afford to pay.

The Condition of Labor

As conditions in industry changed, social and political conditions changed with them. Farm laborers and artisans flocked to the manufacturing centers and became industrial workers. Cities grew rapidly, and the percentage of farmers in the total population declined.

The population of England as a whole began to increase rapidly after the middle of the 18th century. Because of progress in medical knowledge and sanitation, fewer people died in infancy or childhood and the average length of life increased.

Far-reaching changes were gradually brought about in the life of the industrial workers. For one thing, machines took a great burden of hard work from the muscles of human beings. Some of the other changes, however, were not so welcome.

The change from domestic industry to the factory system meant a loss of independence to the worker. The home laborer could work whenever he pleased. Although the need for money often drove him to toil long hours, he could vary the monotony of his task by digging or planting his garden patch. When he became a factory employee, he not only had to work long hours, but he had to leave his little farm. He lived near the factory, often in a crowded slum district. He was forced to work continuously at the pace set by the machine. The long hours and the monotonous toil were an especially great hardship for the women and children. The vast majority of the jobs were held by them by 1816.

The change was particularly hard on the weavers and the other skilled workers who sank to the position of factory workers. They had been independent masters, capitalists in a small way, and managers of their own businesses. They had pride in their skill. When they saw themselves being forced into factories to do other men’s bidding for the same pay as unskilled workers, it is no wonder that they rioted and broke up looms.

Problems of Capital and Labor

A person had to have a lot of capital to buy machines and open a factory. Those who were successful made huge profits with which to buy more machines, put up larger buildings, and purchase supplies in greater quantities at enormous savings. Thus capital increased far more rapidly than it ever had before. Much of it was invested in building canals, railroads, and steamships and in developing foreign trade. The men who controlled these enterprises formed a powerful new class in England–the industrial capitalists.

The capitalists had a struggle to obtain a voice in the government. They needed a better system of banking, currency, and credit. They had to find and hold markets for their products. They had many difficulties in organizing their factories to run efficiently. They also had to make a profit on their investments in the face of intense competition.

Laissez-faire was the rule in England. This meant that the government had accepted the doctrine that it should keep hands off business. Factory owners could therefore arrange working conditions in whatever way they pleased. Grave problems arose for the workers–problems of working hours, wages, unemployment, accidents, employment of women and children, and housing conditions.

Children could tend most of the machines as well as older persons could, and they could be hired for less pay. Great numbers of them were worked form 12 to 14 hours a day under terrible conditions. Many were apprenticed to the factory owners and housed in miserable dormitories. Ill-fed and ill-clothed, they were sometimes driven under the lash of the overseer. The high death rate of these child slaves eventually roused Parliament to pass laws limiting the daily toil for apprentices.

Rise of Labor Unions

Workers sought to win improved conditions and wages through labor unions. These unions often started as “friendly societies” that collected dues from workers and extended aid during illness or unemployment. Soon, however, they became organizations for winning improvements by collective bargaining and strikes.

Industrial workers also sought to benefit themselves by political action. They fought such legislation as the English laws of 1799 and 1800 forbidding labor organizations. They campaigned to secure laws which would help them. The struggle by workers to win the right to vote and to extend their political power was one of the major factors in the spread of democracy during the 19th century.

Revolution Spreads to the United States

Until 1815 France was busy with the Napoleonic wars. It had little opportunity to introduce machinery. When peace came France began to follow England. It followed slowly, however, and has never devoted itself as exclusively to manufacturing as England has. Belgium was ahead of France in adopting the new methods. The other European countries made little progress until the second half of the 19th century.

The United States too was slow in adopting machine methods of manufacture. Farming and trading were its chief interests until the Civil War. The new nation had little capital with which to buy the machinery and put up the buildings required. Such capital as existed was largely invested in shipping and commerce. Labor was scarce because men continued to push westward, clearing the forests and establishing themselves on the land.

A start in manufacturing, however, was made in New England in 1790 by Samuel Slater. An employee of Arkwright’s spinning mills, Slater came to the United States in 1789. He was hired by Moses Brown of Providence, R. I., to build a mill on the Pawtucket, or Seekonk, River. English laws forbade export of either the new machinery or plans for making it. Slater designed the machine from memory and built a mill which started operation in 1790. When the Napoleonic wars and the War of 1812 upset commerce and made English products difficult to obtain, more American investors began to build factories.

Pioneer Industries and Inventions

New England soon developed an important textile industry. It had swift streams for power and a humid climate, which kept cotton and wool fibers in condition for spinning and weaving. In Pennsylvania iron for machines, tools, and guns was smelted in stone furnaces. They burned charcoal, plentiful in this forested land. Spinning machines driven by steam were operating in New York by 1810. The first practical power loom was installed at Waltham, Mass., by Francis Cabot Lowell in 1814. Shoemaking was organized into a factory system of production in Massachusetts in the early 19th century. New England was the first area in the United States to industrialize.

American inventors produced many new machines that could be applied to industry as well as to agriculture. Oliver Evans designed a steam engine more powerful than that of James Watt. Engineers quickly adopted the new engine and used it to power locomotives and steamboats.

Cyrus McCormick invented several machines used to mechanize farming. His mechanical reaper, patented in 1834, revolutionized harvesting, making it quicker and easier. Elias Howe’s sewing machine eased the life of the housewife and made the manufacture of clothing less expensive.

Techniques of factory production were refined in American workshops. Eli Whitney led the movement to standardize parts used in manufacture. They became interchangeable, enabling unskilled workers to assemble products from boxes of parts quickly. American factories used machine tools to make parts. These machines were arranged in lines for more efficient production. This was called the “American system of manufacturing,” and it was admired by all other industrial nations. It was first applied to the manufacture of firearms and later spread to other industries like clock and lock making.

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Roadrunners

 

While we are driving in the deserts of the United States and Mexico, we often encounter roadrunners running at high speed in front of our vehicles. Wearing coats mixed in black, brown, and white, roadrunners have a dash of blue and red behind each of their eyes. They also have bushy head feathers, called head crests, that stand up when they are curious or excited. Roadrunners can grow up to 2 feet long, but their tails take up half of that length. Even though they can fly, their wings are too short to carry them airborne for more than a few seconds. Therefore, when they feel threatened, roadrunners have a better chance of survival by fleeing on foot than by flying. Indeed, with a pair of long, strong legs, roadrunners can speed away as fast as 17 miles per hour!

Aside from their ability to run fast, roadrunners are equally famous for their expertise in killing one of the world’s most poisonous snakes – rattlesnakes. When a roadrunner comes across a rattlesnake, it quickly snatches the snake in its bill and tosses its prey into the air. After the snake lands, the roadrunner takes a hold of the half-unconscious snake and slams it on the ground or against a rock repeatedly until it is dead. Roadrunners also feed on insects, lizards, rodents, scorpions, and small birds.

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Sumerian Culture

Before the Sumerians appeared on the land, it had been occupied by a non-Semitic people, referred to as Ubaidians. Their name comes from the village of Al Ubaid, in which their remains were first found by archaeologists.

The Ubaidians settled the region between 4500 and 4000 BC. They drained the marshes and introduced agriculture. They also developed trade based on small handicraft industries such as metalwork, leather goods, and pottery.

The World’s First Cities

In ancient Mesopotamia, a land of blazing sun and very little rainfall, irrigation was vital for farming. Centuries before the beginning of known history, the Sumerians undertook the stupendous task of building embankments to control the floodwaters of the Euphrates River. Gradually they drained the marshes and dug irrigation canals and ditches. Large-scale cooperation was needed to build the irrigation works, keep them in repair, and apportion the water. This need gave rise to government and laws.

The rich soil produced abundant crops of barley, emmer (a kind of wheat), beans, olives, grapes, and flax. For the first time there was a surplus to feed city workers such as artists, craftsmen, and merchants. This great change in living habits brought about civiliza- tion–defined as a city-based society held together by economic enterprises. There were no nations then, only small city-states

The Sumerians built their villages on artificial mounds to protect them from floods. Very early they learned to make bricks in molds and dry them in the sun or bake them in kilns. Their sturdy houses were small and crowded close together on narrow lanes. Some were two or more stories high. The whole city was surrounded by a wall for protection. Outside the wall were the poor peoples’ huts, built of reeds that were plastered with clay.

Each Sumerian city rose up around the shrine of a local god. As a reflection of a city’s wealth, its temple became an elaborate structure. The temple buildings stood on a spacious raised platform reached by staircases and ramps. From the platform rose the temple tower, called a ziggurat (holy mountain), with a circular staircase or ramp around the outside. On the temple grounds were quarters for priests, officials, accountants, musicians, and singers; treasure chambers; storehouses for grain, tools, and weapons; and workshops for bakers, pottery makers, brewers, leatherworkers, spinners and weavers, and jewelers. There were also pens for keeping the sheep and goats that were destined for sacrifice to the temple god.

Horses and camels were still unknown, but sheep, goats, oxen, donkeys, and dogs had been domesticated. The plow had been invented, and the wheel, made from a solid piece of wood, was used for carts and for shaping pottery. Oxen pulled the carts and plows; donkeys served as pack animals. Bulky goods were moved by boat on the rivers and canals. The boats were usually hauled from the banks, but sails also were in use. Before 3000 BC the Sumerians had learned to make tools and weapons by smelting copper with tin to make bronze, a much harder metal than copper alone.

Mud, clay, and reeds were the only materials the Sumerians had in abundance. Trade was therefore necessary to supply the city workers with materials. Merchants went out in overland caravans or in ships to exchange the products of Sumerian industry for wood, stone, and metals. There are indications that Sumerian sailing vessels even reached the valley of the Indus River in India. The chief route, however, was around the Fertile Crescent, between the Arabian Desert and the northern mountains. This route led up the valley of the two rivers, westward to Syria, and down the Mediterranean coast.

The Sumerian Writing System

Whether the Sumerians were the first to develop writing is uncertain, but theirs is the oldest known writing system. The clay tablets on which they wrote were very durable when baked. Archaeologists have dug up many thousands of them–some dated earlier than 3000 BC.

The earliest writing of the Sumerians was picture writing similar in some ways to Egyptian hieroglyphs. They began to develop their special style when they found that on soft, wet clay it was easier to impress a line than to scratch it. To draw the pictures they used a stylus–probably a straight piece of reed with a three-cornered end.

An unexpected result came about: the stylus could best produce triangular forms (wedges) and straight lines. Curved lines therefore had to be broken up into a series of straight strokes. Pictures lost their form and became stylized symbols. This kind of writing on clay is called cuneiform, from the Latin cuneus, meaning “wedge.” (See also Cuneiform Writing; Hieroglyphics; Writing.)

A tremendous step forward was accomplished when the symbols came to be associated with the sound of the thing shown rather than with the idea of the thing itself. Each sign then represented a syllable. Although cuneiform writing was still used long after the alphabet appeared, it never fully developed an alphabet.

Sumerian Schools

Cuneiform was difficult to learn. To master it children usually went to a temple school. Using a clay tablet as a textbook, the teacher wrote on the left-hand side, and the pupil copied the model on the right. Any mistakes could be smoothed out. The pupil began by making single wedges in various positions and then went on to groups of wedges. Thousands of groups had to be mastered. Finally the pupil was assigned a book to copy, but the work was slow and laborious. Many first chapters of all the important Sumerian works have been handed down from students’ tablets, but only fragments of the rest of the books survive.

The pupils also studied arithmetic. The Sumerians based their number system on 10, but they multiplied 10 by 6 to get the next unit. They multiplied 60 by 10, then multiplied 600 by 6, and so on. (The number 60 has the advantage of being divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30.) The Sumerians also divided the circle into 360 degrees. From these early people came the word dozen (a fifth of 60) and the division of the clock to measure hours, minutes, and seconds.

The Sumerians had standard measures, with units of length, area, and capacity. Their standard weight was the mina, made up of 60 shekels–about the same weight as a pound. There was no coined money. Standard weights of silver served as measures of value and as a means of exchange.

From the earliest times the Sumerians had a strong sense of private property. After they learned to write and figure, they kept documents about every acquired object, including such small items as shoes. Every business transaction had to be recorded. Near the gates of the cities, scribes would sit ready to sell their services. Their hands would move fast over a lump of clay, turning the stylus. Then the contracting parties added their signatures by means of seals. The usual seal was an engraved cylinder of stone or metal that could be rolled over wet clay.

In the course of time cuneiform was used for every purpose, just as writing is today–for letters, narratives, prayers and incantations, dictionaries, even mathematical and astronomical treatises. The Babylonians and Assyrians adapted cuneiform for their own Semitic languages and spread its use to neighboring Syria, Anatolia, Armenia, and Iran.

Stories of Gods and Heroes

As the people in a city-state became familiar with the gods of other cities, they worked out relationships between them, just as the Greeks and Romans did in their myths centuries later. Sometimes two or more gods came to be viewed as one. Eventually a ranking order developed among the gods. Anu, a sky god who originally had been the city god of Uruk, came to be regarded as the greatest of them all–the god of the heavens. His closest rival was the storm god of the air, Enlil of Nippur. The great gods were worshiped in the temples. Each family had little clay figures of its own household gods and small houses or wall niches for them.

The Sumerians believed that their ancestors had created the ground they lived on by separating it from the water. According to their creation myth, the world was once watery chaos. The mother of Chaos was Tiamat, an immense dragon. When the gods appeared to bring order out of Chaos, Tiamat created an army of dragons. Enlil called the winds to his aid. Tiamat came forward, her mouth wide open. Enlil pushed the winds inside her and she swelled up so that she could not move. Then Enlil split her body open. He laid half of the body flat to form the Earth, with the other half arched over it to form the sky. The gods then beheaded Tiamat’s husband and created mankind from his blood, mixed with clay.

The longest story is the Gilgamesh epic, one of the outstanding works of ancient literature. The superhero Gilgamesh originally appeared in Sumerian mythology as a legendary king of Uruk. A long Babylonian poem includes an account of his journey to the bottom of the sea to obtain the plant of life. As he stopped to bathe at a spring on the way home, a hungry snake snatched the plant. When Gilgamesh saw the creature cast off its old skin to become young again, it seemed to him a sign that old age was the fate of humans.

Another searcher for eternal life was Adapa, a fisherman who gained wisdom from Ea, the god of water. The other gods were jealous of his knowledge and called him to heaven. Ea warned him not to drink or eat while there. Anu offered him the water of life and the bread of life because he thought that, since Adapa already knew too much, he might as well be a god. Adapa, however, refused and went back to Earth to die, thus losing for himself and for mankind the gift of immortal life. These legends somewhat resemble the Bible story of Adam and Eve. It is highly probable, in fact, that the ancient legends and myths of Mesopotamia supplied material that was reworked by the biblical authors

It was during the Sumerian era that a great flood overwhelmed Mesopotamia. So great was this flood that stories about it worked their way into several ancient literatures. The Sumerian counterpart of Noah was Ziusudra, and from him was developed the Babylonian figure Utnapishtim, whose story of the flood was related in the ‘Epic of Gilgamesh’. Immortal after his escape from the flood, Utnapishtim was also the wise man who told Gilgamesh where to find the youth-restoring plant.

The Last of the Sumerians

Within a few centuries the Sumerians had built up a society based in 12 city-states: Kish, Uruk (in the Bible, Erech), Ur, Sippar, Akshak, Larak, Nippur, Adab, Umma, Lagash, Bad-tibira, and Larsa. According to one of the earliest historical documents, the Sumerian King List, eight kings of Sumer reigned before the famous flood. Afterwards various city-states by turns became the temporary seat of power until about 2800 BC, when they were united under the rule of one king–Etana of Kish. After Etana, the city-states vied for domination; this weakened the Sumerians, and they were ripe for conquest–first by Elamites, then by Akkadians.

The Sumerians had never been very warlike, and they had only a citizen army, called to arms in time of danger. In about 2340 BC King Sargon of Akkad conquered them and went on to build an empire that stretched westward to the Mediterranean Sea. The empire, though short-lived, fostered art and literature.

Led by Ur, the Sumerians again spread their rule far westward. During Ur’s supremacy (about 2150 to 2050 BC) Sumerian culture reached its highest development. Shortly thereafter the cities lost their independence forever, and gradually the Sumerians completely disappeared as a people. Their language, however, lived on as the language of culture. Their writing, their business organization, their scientific knowledge, and their mythology and law were spread westward by the Babylonians and Assyrians.

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In 1705 Edmond Halley predicted, using Newton’s newly formulated laws of motion, that the comet seen in 1531, 1607, and 1682 would return in 1758 (which was, alas, after his death). The comet did indeed return as predicted and was later named in his honor.

The average period of Halley’s orbit is 76 years but you cannot calculate the dates of its reappearances by simply subtracting multiples of 76 years from 1986. The gravitational pull of the major planets alters the orbital period from revolution to revolution. Nongravitational effects (such as the reaction from gasses boiled off during its passage near the Sun) also play an important, but smaller, role in altering the orbit. Between the years 239 BC and 1986 AD the orbital period has varied from 76.0 years (in 1986) to 79.3 years (in 451 and 1066). The closest perihelion passage to the time of Jesus are 11 BC and 66 AD; neither event took place in Jesus’ lifetime. Its most famous appearance was in 1066 when it was seen at the Battle of Hastings, an event commemorated in the Bayeux Tapestry.

Comet Halley was visible in 1910 and again in 1986. Its next perihelion passage will be in early 2062.

Halley’s orbit is retrograde and inclined 18 degrees to the ecliptic. And, like all comets, highly eccentric.

Only four comets have been visited by spacecraft. NASA’s ICE passed through the tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner in 1985; Comet Grigg Skjellerup was visited by Giotto in 1989. In 1986, five spacecraft from the USSR, Japan, and the European Community visited Comet Halley; ESA’s Giotto obtained close-up photos of Halley’s nucleus (above and right). NASA’s technology demonstration spacecraft DS1 imaged the nucleus of Comet Borrelly in 2001.

The nucleus of Comet Halley is approximately 16x8x8 kilometers.

Contrary to prior expectations, Halley’s nucleus is very dark: its albedo is only about 0.03 making it darker than coal and one of the darkest objects in the solar system.

The density of Halley’s nucleus is very low: about 0.1 gm/cm3 indicating that it is probably porous, perhaps because it is largely dust remaining after the ices have sublimed away.

Halley is almost unique among comets in that it is both large and active and has a well defined, regular orbit. This made it a relatively easy target for Giotto et al. but may not be representative of comets in general.

Comet Halley will return to the inner solar system in the year 2061

Read more about Comet Halley by nineplanets.org

 

 

 

 

 

网友评论已有2条评论, 我也要评论

  1. admin
    2011-06-24 08:58:41 沙发

    网上的机经很多,我主要补充一些背景知识。

  2. samuri
    2011-06-23 09:44:10 板凳

    这套机经7月9号可能性大吗,小马上好像也有。

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