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090403NA机经及相关阅读(五月托福必备)

2011-03-30 13:32 作者: 来源: 本站 浏览: 2,270 views 我要评论(1条) 字号:

摘要: 1. 英国工业发展时期灰蛾子和黑蛾子数量的增减。 这是一个非常经典的案例,高中的时候生物课什么的好像学过~反正我印象很深。总之核心观点是:污染严重——树木变黑——黑蛾子隐蔽效果变好——灰蛾子被吃得多,这个理论来自涉及到一个科学家的实验以及数据采集。学术界关于这...

1. 英国工业发展时期灰蛾子和黑蛾子数量的增减。
这是一个非常经典的案例,高中的时候生物课什么的好像学过~反正我印象很深。总之核心观点是:污染严重——树木变黑——黑蛾子隐蔽效果变好——灰蛾子被吃得多,这个理论来自涉及到一个科学家的实验以及数据采集。学术界关于这个还是有争议的,所以作者使出杀手锏:1965年英国通过环保法案以后,灰蛾子的数量又上来了。于是科学家的理论就从反方向得到证实。
2. 生物多样性。

从赤道到极低多样性渐渐减弱。里面谈到海洋里的对比不强烈,因为温差只是在上面几十米,下面都是一个样的黑和冷,所以作者认为海洋多样性不是由光照和温度产生的。另外一个问题是多食动物generalist和专食动物specilist的区别。作者是通过季节周期性变化带来食物供应量的变化,然后食物的限制造成两种动物的不同这个方面来谈的。@@##

3. 欧洲中世纪行会制度Guild

也是我们高中历史学过的。先讲大师傅master的出道过程。然后是整个行会的排他性。接着是行会和城邦政府怎么样由前提相互支持(垄断)到后来政府看中垄断的大面包于是插手进来分一杯羹的。除了政府以外,另一个行会的另一个强劲对手是城外不受法律约束而且拥有廉价劳动力(农民工,well,原来历史差得也不多……)的个体企业。后来行会竞争不过,成本拼不过,价格当然也拼不过,同时又遇到一些供应上的困难,所以结果怎么样就@@##了。还有,他们自己本身也有矛盾,主要是master们有些很有野心,想要扩张。所以简单说就是内忧外患咯~

 

2009年4月3日北美托福机经听力

 

1. MM没定专业,教授诱惑其选art history。MM说我很有兴趣但是这个专业太专,不够泛;同时我的兴趣其实来自对古希腊神话(art很多描述这个的)。教授说你可以interdisciplinary学习=文学+希腊语+艺术啊!这个好东西很多学生还不知道呢!MM大喜。教授说不过还得多学拉丁语,MM说不怕我高中有底子。

 

2. 英国巨石阵和10km以外的另一个古迹X比较,事实:两个东西一个石头一个木头,都有小路通往近处的一个湖。核心观点:巨石阵用来严肃崇拜神灵,X用来聚会畅饮feast。古代一个仪式的顺序:夏至的时候,feast——走到湖边——到巨石阵Worship。人类学学术思想(教授提出):不要用自己本民族的文化妄自推断他民族的文化。http://baike.baidu.com/view/633709.htm里面“巨石阵之谜难倒科学家”这一部分比较像

 

3.

 

4. 一个活动之后报销的,很@@##,就不说了。

 

5. B cell的免疫效果从题目来看,估计是淋巴B细胞。B细胞有分辨体内细胞和体外细胞的能力(通过细胞中某一部分),应用它则有两个功能:一是病毒侵入以后包裹并杀菌;二是记忆,下另外两个就不记得了,大家听到时候要记住首字母,以及这两种方法各自对应那两种病毒。最后遗憾:对感冒效力不强,因为感冒>2000种,不可能每次都像从牛痘提取天花疫苗一样提取感冒疫苗。

 

6.

 

7. 鸟类迁徙+8. 大王花+9. Ragtime音乐=太经典不用说了~

 

但是大家注意,经典JJ上面多少有不准确的地方!但是我觉得没有必要在这里做更正,因为那些小错误不会影响整体体力——剩下的误差部分,相信大家完全应付得来!

 

口语

1. 你童年学到了什么东西?What did you learn in your childhood?

 

2. 有人喜欢把时间排得很满,有人喜欢留很多free time。你呢?

 

3. 学校校报一类的东西停止发放,

理由:一是改为website;二是学生写review的参与性不高

某男反驳,一是校报本来到处都是,很方便拿的,放到网上就没人去看了;二是你这样一搞那么学生参与就更少了笨;

此外建议一个:给学生付工资,那么参与的人一定多了,学校也有这个budget。

 

4.

 

5. GG明天论文截止,但今晚答应朋友听音乐会。MM善解人意:一你可以去啊,人家都帮你买票了;GG矛盾,听吧,今晚就通宵了。GG充当MM角色继续说:不听吧,别人请客票都帮咱买了,不去不行啊!

完。问题大家都知道。

 

6. 雌性动物当妈后胆子变大。实验场所:两种容器,一种像下水道,另一种没有top,可以看到上面。 对象:两只rat,一处女一妈。现象:处女rat胆子小只敢走想下水道那个,妈大无畏两个照走。

结论:为了给孩子找东西吃,妈天不怕地不怕。

 

写作:

 

综合写作. 北美Hohokam人突然消失于X地的原因

 

文章:

1. 过度耕种,漫灌(高中地理again!),土地盐碱化,土地遂不孕不育

2. 把树砍光,动物没有栖息地,搬走;人类没东西吃,也走;

3. 战乱,跟风语者打一仗然后估计输了就撤了,理由是由类似于工事的东西。

 

老师反对

1. 他们采用丰收之后休耕的做法,土地保养得很好一春又一春;再说在那以前1000年他们一直用得好好的,咋就一下没了?

2. 这种树生长很快,只用木材来生火和盖房子的古人是用不完的;

3. 有工事不等于有战争,也许只是预防而已(Argument啊!看得我热血沸腾!);再说没有其他关于战争的遗迹留下哦大佬~

 

独立写作. 同意否“提高教育水平的最佳方法是提高教师工资””The best way to improve the quality of education is to imcrease teachers’ salaries’.

以下为本套机经相关阅读材料:

阅读材料1

Its extraordinary transformation is always held up as the perfect demonstration of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

The pale, speckled peppered moth turned black in many parts of Britain following the Industrial Revolution over the space of a few decades, enabling it to blend in against soot-covered trees and avoid predators.

It became known as Darwin’s moth, a symbol both of our changing landscape and of our understanding of its effect on the natural world.

Enlarge   PEPPERED MOTHS The peppered moth turned black in many parts of Britain following the Industrial Revolution, enabling it to blend in against soot-covered trees

But now that much of Britain’s old heavy industry is just a distant memory, it seems the pendulum has swung the other way for the moths as well.

Scientists suspect the black variety is disappearing again – meaning that in a further vindication for the famous 19th century naturalist 200 years after his birth, the original pale-coloured moths are taking over once more.

Now they want people across the country to report sightings of either type in a bid to see if they are correct.

‘We have seen these moths making a big swing back to their original colour,’ said Richard Fox, of Dorset-based Butterfly Conservation, who is project manager of Garden Moths Count 2009.

‘It has been happening for decades as air pollution is cleaned up and with the demise of heavy industry in the big cities.

CHARLES DARWINRevolutionary: Charles Darwin’s idea of natural selection explained the appearance change of species

‘The moths have been responding to this and the numbers of black and white moths will vary across the county.

‘In Dorset it is very rare to see the moth in its dark form, but in industrial cities 150 years ago they were almost all black and that’s where we will notice the greatest changes now.’

The peppered moth, Biston betularia, was originally white with speckles, hence its name, which allowed it to rest on lichen-covered trees and walls without being spotted by birds.

But as soot belched out by factory chimneys began to coat industrial areas of Britain, killing off pollution-sensitive lichen, a black variety began to outnumber its pale cousin in towns and cities as it was better at hiding from predators.

The transformation became a staple of school textbooks as an easy way of explaining how natural selection causes species to change their appearance as they adapt to their environment.

More recently, the story of the peppered moth has also become a battleground for creationists who claim the whole event is based on flawed data.

Sightings of the species have declined by 60 per cent over the last 40 years, but if the dark form has suffered more it is likely to be seized on by supporters of Darwin to support his theory.

‘It’s an iconic moth, the one that everyone learns about at school because it is such an amazing example of natural selection,’ said Mr Fox.

‘We will be fascinated to see where people are finding the two different forms of the moth and whether in fact people are finding it in their gardens at all.’

Garden Moths Count is part of the national Moths Count project, established after research indicated massive declines in moth numbers, especially in the southern half of Britain.

Some people are put off moths by their association with eating clothes, but in reality only half a dozen of Britain’s 2,500 moth species do this – and they prefer dirty items that are hidden away in the dark in places where they are not disturbed.

Mr Fox added: ‘Moths are important indicators and observing them can tell us a lot. They are an essential food source for many birds and they are important pollinators in the garden.’

Sightings of moths seen by day or at night can be logged at the Garden Moths Count website www.mothscount.org

How to survive in black and white

Darwin’s revolutionary idea of natural selection explained why the appearance of species changed over time.

Peppered moths originally evolved with pale wings and black speckles to blend into their surroundings and avoid predators.

As with all plants and animals, occasionally a different-coloured one hatched, but black peppered moths rarely survived for long because they were caught so easily.

By the mid-19th century, soot from the mills and furnaces of the Industrial Revolution coated trees and buildings.

Gradually, more of the darker moths survived long enough to breed as they were now better disguised, and their paler cousins fell victim to predators.

The gene for dark colouring became more widespread with each new generation of moths, and eventually it dominated.

The trend has been seen in other species around the world, and is termed industrial melanism.

But now the conditions which favoured the darker moths are a thing of the past, the balance appears to have tipped back again.

阅读材料2

The term biological diversity was used first by wildlife scientist and conservationist Raymond F. Dasmann in the 1968 lay book A Different Kind of Country[5] advocating conservation. The term was widely adopted only after more than a decade, when in the 1980s it came into common usage in science and environmental policy. Thomas Lovejoy, in the foreword to the book Conservation Biology,[6] introduced the term to the scientific community. Until then the term “natural diversity” was common, introduced by The Science Division of The Nature Conservancy in an important 1975 study, “The Preservation of Natural Diversity.” By the early 1980s TNC’s Science program and its head, Robert E. Jenkins,[7] Lovejoy and other leading conservation scientists at the time in America advocated the use of “biological diversity”.

The term’s contracted form biodiversity may have been coined by W.G. Rosen in 1985 while planning the 1986 National Forum on Biological Diversity organized by the National Research Council (NRC). It first appeared in a publication in 1988 when entomologist E. O. Wilson used it as the title of the proceedings[8] of that forum.[9]

Since this period the term has achieved widespread use among biologists, environmentalists, political leaders, and concerned citizens.

A similar term in the United States is “natural heritage.” It predates the others and is more accepted by the wider audience interested in conservation. Broader than biodiversity, it includes geology and landforms (geodiversity).

Definitions

A Sampling of fungi collected during summer 2008 in Northern Saskatchewan mixed woods, near LaRonge is an example regarding the species diversity of fungi. In this photo, there are also leaf lichens and mosses.

“Biological diversity” or “biodiversity” can have many interpretations. It is most commonly used to replace the more clearly defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness. Biologists most often define biodiversity as the “totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of a region”.[citation needed] An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional three levels at which biological variety has been identified:

In 2003 Professor Anthony Campbell at Cardiff University, UK and the Darwin Centre, Pembrokeshire, defined a fourth level: Molecular Diversity.[10]

This multilevel construct is consistent with Dasmann and Lovejoy. An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. Wilcox commissioned by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) for the 1982 World National Parks Conference.[11] Wilcox’s definition was “Biological diversity is the variety of life forms…at all levels of biological systems (i.e., molecular, organismic, population, species and ecosystem)…” The 1992 United Nations Earth Summit defined “biological diversity” as “the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, ‘inter alia’, terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems”.[citation needed] This definition is used in the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity.[citation needed]

One textbook’s definition is “variation of life at all levels of biological organization”.[12][13]

Geneticists define it as the diversity of genes and organisms. They study processes such as mutations, gene transfer, and genome dynamics that generate evolution.[11]

Linking biodiversity levels

Measuring diversity at one level in a group of organisms may not precisely correspond to diversity at other levels. However, tetrapod (terrestrial vertebrates) taxonomic and ecological diversity shows a very close correlation.[14]

Distribution

Selection bias amongst researchers may contribute to biased empirical research for modern estimates of biodiversity. In 1768 Rev. Gilbert White succinctly observed of his Selborne, Hampshire “all nature is so full, that that district produces the most variety which is the most examined.”[15]

Biodiversity is not evenly distributed. Flora and fauna diversity depends on climate, altitude, soils and the presence of other species. Diversity consistently measures higher in the tropics and in other localized regions such as Cape Floristic Province and lower in polar regions generally. In 2006 many species were formally classified as rare or endangered or threatened; moreover, scientists have estimated that millions more species are at risk which have not been formally recognized. About 40 percent of the 40,177 species assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria are now listed as threatened with extinction—a total of 16,119.[16]

Even though terrestrial biodiversity declines from the equator to the poles, this characteristic is unverified in aquatic ecosystems, especially in marine ecosystems.[17] In addition, several assessments reveal tremendous diversity in higher latitudes.[citation needed] Generally terrestrial biodiversity is up to 25 times greater than ocean biodiversity.[18]

A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species. Hotspots were first named in 1988 by Dr. Norman Myers.[19][20] Many hotspots have large nearby human populations.[citation needed] Most hotspots are located in the tropics and most of them are forests.[citation needed]

Brazil‘s Atlantic Forest is considered one such hotspot, containing roughly 20,000 plant species, 1,350 vertebrates, and millions of insects, about half of which occur nowhere else. The island of Madagascar, particularly the unique Madagascar dry deciduous forests and lowland rainforests, possess a high ratio of endemism. Since the island separated from mainland Africa 65 million years ago, many species and ecosystems have evolved independently. Indonesia‘s 17,000 islands cover 735,355 square miles (1,904,560 km2) contain 10% of the world’s flowering plants, 12% of mammals and 17% of reptiles, amphibians and birds—along with nearly 240 million people.[21] Many regions of high biodiversity and/or endemism arise from specialized habitats which require unusual adaptations, for example alpine environments in high mountains, or Northern European peat bogs.

 

阅读材料3:

Guilds existed throughout Europe during the Middle Ages. Guilds were groups of individuals with common goals. The term guild probably derives from the Anglo-Saxon root geld which meant ‘to pay, contribute.’ The noun form of geld meant an association of persons contributing money for some common purpose. The root also meant ‘to sacrifice, worship.’ The dual definitions probably reflected guilds’ origins as both secular and religious organizations.

The term guild had many synonyms in the Middle Ages. These included association, brotherhood, college, company, confraternity, corporation, craft, fellowship, fraternity, livery, society, and equivalents of these terms in Latin, Germanic, Scandinavian, and Romance languages such as ambach, arte, collegium, corporatio, fraternitas, gilda, innung, corps de métier, societas, and zunft. In the late nineteenth century, as a professional lexicon evolved among historians, the term guild became the universal reference for these groups of merchants, artisans, and other individuals from the ordinary (non-priestly and non-aristocratic) classes of society which were not part of the established religious, military, or governmental hierarchies.

Much of the academic debate about guilds stems from confusion caused by incomplete lexicographical standardization. Scholars study guilds in one time and place and then assume that their findings apply to guilds everywhere and at all times or assert that the organizations that they studied were the one type of true guild, while other organizations deserved neither the distinction nor serious study. To avoid this mistake, this encyclopedia entry begins with the recognition that guilds were groups whose activities, characteristics, and composition varied greatly across centuries, regions, and industries.

Guild Activities and Taxonomy

Guilds filled many niches in medieval economy and society. Typical taxonomies divide urban occupational guilds into two types: merchant and craft.

Merchant guilds were organizations of merchants who were involved in long-distance commerce and local wholesale trade, and may also have been retail sellers of commodities in their home cities and distant venues where they possessed rights to set up shop. The largest and most influential merchant guilds participated in international commerce and politics and established colonies in foreign cities. In many cases, they evolved into or became inextricably intertwined with the governments of their home towns.

Merchant guilds enforced contracts among members and between members and outsiders. Guilds policed members’ behavior because medieval commerce operated according to the community responsibility system. If a merchant from a particular town failed to fulfill his part of a bargain or pay his debts, all members of his guild could be held liable. When they were in a foreign port, their goods could be seized and sold to alleviate the bad debt. They would then return to their hometown, where they would seek compensation from the original defaulter.

Merchant guilds also protected members against predation by rulers. Rulers seeking revenue had an incentive to seize money and merchandise from foreign merchants. Guilds threatened to boycott the realms of rulers who did this, a practice known aswithernam in medieval England. Since boycotts impoverished both kingdoms which depended on commerce and governments for whom tariffs were the principal source of revenue, the threat of retaliation deterred medieval potentates from excessive expropriations.

Merchant guilds tended to be wealthier and of higher social status than craft guilds. Merchants’ organizations usually possessed privileged positions in religious and secular ceremonies and inordinately influenced local governments.

Craft guilds were organized along lines of particular trades. Members of these guilds typically owned and operated small businesses or family workshops. Craft guilds operated in many sectors of the economy. Guilds of victuallers bought agricultural commodities, converted them to consumables, and sold finished foodstuffs. Examples included bakers, brewers, and butchers. Guilds of manufacturers made durable goods, and when profitable, exported them from their towns to consumers in distant markets. Examples include makers of textiles, military equipment, and metal ware. Guilds of a third type sold skills and services. Examples include clerks, teamsters, and entertainers.

These occupational organizations engaged in a wide array of economic activities. Some manipulated input and output markets to their own advantage. Others established reputations for quality, fostering the expansion of anonymous exchange and making everyone better off. Because of the underlying economic realities, victualling guilds tended towards the former. Manufacturing guilds tended towards the latter. Guilds of service providers fell somewhere in between. All three types of guilds managed labor markets, lowered wages, and advanced their own interests at their subordinates’ expense. These undertakings had a common theme. Merchant and craft guilds acted to increase and stabilize members’ incomes.

Non-occupational guilds also operated in medieval towns and cities. These organizations had both secular and religious functions. Historians refer to these organizations as social, religious, or parish guilds as well as fraternities and confraternities. The secular activities of these organizations included providing members with mutual insurance, extending credit to members in times of need, aiding members in courts of law, and helping the children of members afford apprenticeships and dowries.

The principal pious objective was the salvation of the soul and escape from Purgatory. The doctrine of Purgatory was the belief that there lay between Heaven and Hell an intermediate place, by passing though which the souls of the dead might cleanse themselves of guilt attached to the sins committed during their lifetime by submitting to a graduated scale of divine punishment. The suffering through which they were cleansed might be abbreviated by the prayers of the living, and most especially by masses. Praying devoutly, sponsoring masses, and giving alms were three of the most effective methods of redeeming one’s soul. These works of atonement could be performed by the penitent on their own or by someone else on their behalf.

Guilds served as mechanisms for organizing, managing, and financing the collective quest for eternal salvation. Efforts centered on three types of tasks. The first were routine and participatory religious services. Members of guilds gathered at church on Sundays and often also on other days of the week. Members marked ceremonial occasions, such as the day of their patron saint or Good Friday, with prayers, processions, banquets, masses, the singing of psalms, the illumination of holy symbols, and the distribution of alms to the poor. Some guilds kept chaplains on call. Others hired priests when the need arose. These clerics hosted regular religious services, such as vespers each evening or mass on Sunday morning, and prayed for the souls of members living and deceased.

The second category consisted of actions performed on members’ behalf after their deaths and for the benefit of their souls. Postmortem services began with funerals and burials, which guilds arranged for the recently departed. The services were elaborate and extensive. On the day before internment, members gathered around the corpse, lit candles, and sung a placebo and a dirge, which were the vespers and matins from the Office of the Dead. On the day of internment, a procession marched from churchyard to graveyard, buried the body, distributed alms, and attended mass. Additional masses numbering one to forty occurred later that day and sometimes for months thereafter. Postmortem prayers continued even further into the future and in theory into perpetuity. All guilds prayed for the souls of deceased members. These prayers were a prominent part of all guild events. Many guilds also hired priests to pray for the souls of the deceased. A few guilds built chantries where priests said those prayers.

The third category involved indoctrination and monitoring to maintain the piety of members. The Christian catechism of the era contained clear commandments. Rest on the Sabbath and religious holidays. Be truthful. Do not deceive others. Be chaste. Do not commit adultery. Be faithful to your family. Obey authorities. Be modest. Do not covet thy neighbors’ possessions. Do not steal. Do not gamble. Work hard. Support the church. Guild ordinances echoed these exhortations. Members should neither gamble nor lie nor steal nor drink to excess. They should restrain their gluttony, lust, avarice, and corporal impulses. They should pray to the Lord, live like His son, and give alms to the poor.

Righteous living was important because members’ fates were linked together. The more pious one’s brethren, the more helpful their prayers, and the quicker one escaped from purgatory. The worse one’s brethren, the less salutary their supplications and the longer one suffered during the afterlife. So, in hopes of minimizing purgatorial pain and maximizing eternal happiness, guilds beseeched members to restrain physical desires and forgo worldly pleasures.

Guilds also operated in villages and the countryside. Rural guilds performed the same tasks as social and religious guilds in towns and cities. Recent research on medieval England indicates that guilds operated in most, if not all, villages. Villages often possessed multiple guilds. Most rural residents belonged to a guild. Some may have joined more than one organization.

Guilds often spanned multiple dimensions of this taxonomy. Members of craft guilds participated in wholesale commerce. Members of merchant guilds opened retail shops. Social and religious guilds evolved into occupational associations. All merchant and craft guilds possessed religious and fraternal features.

In sum, guild members sought prosperity in this life and providence in the next. Members wanted high and stable incomes, quick passage through Purgatory, and eternity in Heaven. Guilds helped them coordinate their collective efforts to attain these goals.

Guild Structure and Organization

To attain their collective goals, guild members had to cooperate. If some members slacked off, all would suffer. Guilds that wished to lower the costs of labor had to get all masters to reduce wages. Guilds that wished to raise the prices of products had to get all members to restrict output. Guilds that wished to develop respected reputations had to get all members to sell superior merchandise. Guild members contributed money – to pay priests and purchase pious paraphernalia – and contributed time, emotion, and personal energy, as well. Members participated in frequent religious services, attended funerals, and prayed for the souls of the brethren. Members had to live piously, abstaining both from the pleasures of the flesh and the material temptations of secular life. Members also had to administer their associations. The need for coordination was a common denominator.

To convince members to cooperate and advance their common interests, guilds formed stable, self-enforcing associations that possessed structures for making and implementing collective decisions.

A guild’s members met at least once a year (and in most cases more often) to elect officers, audit accounts, induct new members, debate policies, and amend ordinances. Officers such as aldermen, stewards, deans, and clerks managed the guild’s day to day affairs. Aldermen directed guild activities and supervised lower-ranking officers. Stewards kept guild funds, and their accounts were periodically audited. Deans summoned members to meetings, feasts, and funerals, and in many cases, policed members’ behavior. Clerks kept records. Decisions were usually made by majority vote among the master craftsmen.

These officers administered a nexus of agreements among a guild’s members. Details of these agreements varied greatly from guild to guild, but the issues addressed were similar in all cases. Members agreed to contribute certain resources and/or take certain actions that furthered the guild’s occupational and spiritual endeavors. Officers of the guild monitored members’ contributions. Manufacturing guilds, for example, employed officers known as searchers who scrutinized members’ merchandise to make sure it met guild standards and inspected members’ shops and homes seeking evidence of attempts to circumvent the rules. Members who failed to fulfill their obligations faced punishments of various sorts.

Punishments varied across transgressions, guilds, time, and space, but a pattern existed. First time offenders were punished lightly, perhaps suffering public scolding and paying small monetary fines, and repeat offenders punished harshly. The ultimate threat was expulsion. Guilds could do nothing harsher because laws protected persons and property from arbitrary expropriations and physical abuse. The legal system set the rights of individuals above the interests of organizations. Guilds were voluntary associations. Members facing harsh punishments could quit the guild and walk away. The most the guild could extract was the value of membership. Abundant evidence indicates that guilds enforced agreements in this manner.

Other game-theoretic options existed, of course. Guilds could have punished uncooperative members by taking actions with wider consequences. Members of a manufacturing guild who caught one of their own passing off shoddy merchandise under the guilds’ good name could have punished the offender by collectively lowering the quality of their products for a prolonged period. That would lower the offender’s income, albeit at the cost of lowering the income of all other members as well. Similarly, members of a guild that caught one of their brethren shirking on prayers and sinning incessantly could have punished the offender by collectively forsaking the Lord and descending into debauchery. Then, no one would or could pray for the soul of the offender, and his period in Purgatory would be extended significantly. In broader terms, cheaters could have been punished by any action that reduced the average incomes of all guild members or increased the pain that all members expected to endure in Purgatory. In theory, such threats could have convinced even the most recalcitrant members to contribute to the common good.

But, no evidence exists that craft guilds ever operated in such a manner. None of the hundreds of surviving guild ordinances contains threats of such a kind. No surviving guild documents describe punishing the innocent along with the guilty. Guilds appear to have eschewed indiscriminant retaliation for several salient reasons. First, monitoring members’ behavior was costly and imperfect. Time and risk preferences varied across individuals. Uncertainty of many kinds influenced craftsmen’s decisions. Some members would have attempted to cheat regardless of the threatened punishment. Punishments, in other words, would have occurred in equilibrium. The cost of carrying out an equilibrium-sustaining threat of expulsion would have been lower than the cost of carrying out an equilibrium-sustaining threat that reduced average income. Thus, expelling members caught violating the rules was an efficient method of enforcing the rules. Second, punishing free riders by indiscriminately harming all guild members may not have been a convincing threat. Individuals may not have believed that threats of mutual assured destruction would be carried out. The incentive to renegotiate was strong. Third, skepticism probably existed about threats to do onto others as they had done onto you. That concept contradicted a fundamental teaching of the church, to do onto others as you would have them do onto you. It also contradicted Jesus’ admonition to turn the other cheek. Thus, indiscriminant retaliation based upon hair-trigger strategies was not an organizing principle likely to be adopted by guilds whose members hoped to speed passage through Purgatory.

A hierarchy existed in large guilds. Masters were full members who usually owned their own workshops, retail outlets, or trading vessels. Masters employed journeymen, who were laborers who worked for wages on short term contracts or a daily basis (hence the term journeyman, from the French word for day). Journeymen hoped to one day advance to the level of master. To do this, journeymen usually had to save enough money to open a workshop and pay for admittance, or if they were lucky, receive a workshop through marriage or inheritance.

Masters also supervised apprentices, who were usually boys in their teens who worked for room, board, and perhaps a small stipend in exchange for a vocational education. Both guilds and government regulated apprenticeships, usually to ensure that masters fulfilled their part of the apprenticeship agreement. Terms of apprenticeships varied, usually lasting from five to nine years.

The internal structure of guilds varied widely across Europe. Little is known for certain about the structure of smaller guilds, since they left few written documents. Most of the evidence comes from large, successful associations whose internal records survive to the present day. The description above is based on such documents. It seems likely that smaller organizations fulfilled many of the same functions, but their structure was probably less formal and more horizontal.

Relationships between guilds and governments also varied across Europe. Most guilds aspired to attain recognition as a self-governing association with the right to possess property and other legal privileges. Guilds often purchased these rights from municipal and national authorities. In England, for example, a guild which wished to possess property had to purchase from the royal government a writ allowing it to do so. But, most guilds operated without formal sanction from the government. Guilds were spontaneous, voluntary, and self-enforcing associations.

Guild Chronology and Impact

Reconstructing the history of guilds poses several problems. Few written records survive from the twelfth century and earlier. Surviving documents consist principally of the records of rulers – kings, princes, churches – that taxed, chartered, and granted privileges to organizations. Some evidence also exists in the records of notaries and courts, which recorded and enforced contracts between guild masters and outsiders, such as the parents of apprentices. From the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, records survive in larger numbers. Surviving records include statute books and other documents describing the internal organization and operation of guilds. The evidence at hand links the rise and decline of guilds to several important events in the history of Western Europe.

In the late Roman Empire, organizations resembling guilds existed in most towns and cities. These voluntary associations of artisans, known as collegia, were occasionally regulated by the state but largely left alone. They were organized along trade lines and possessed a strong social base, since their members shared religious observances and fraternal dinners. Most of these organizations disappeared during the Dark Ages, when the Western Roman Empire disintegrated and urban life collapsed. In the Eastern Empire, some collegia appear to have survived from antiquity into the Middle Ages, particularly in Constantinople, where Leo the Wise codified laws concerning commerce and crafts at the beginning of the tenth century and sources reveal an unbroken tradition of state management of guilds from ancient times. Some scholars suspect that in the West, a few of the most resilient collegia in the surviving urban areas may have evolved in an unbroken descent into medieval guilds, but the absence of documentary evidence makes it appear unlikely and unprovable.

In the centuries following the Germanic invasions, evidence indicates that numerous guild-like associations existed in towns and rural areas. These organizations functioned as modern burial and benefit societies, whose objectives included prayers for the souls of deceased members, payments of weregilds in cases of justifiable homicide, and supporting members involved in legal disputes. These rural guilds were descendents of Germanic social organizations known as gilda which the Roman historian Tacitus referred to as convivium.

During the eleventh through thirteenth centuries, considerable economic development occurred. The sources of development were increases in the productivity of medieval agriculture, the abatement of external raiding by Scandinavian and Muslim brigands, and population increases. The revival of long-distance trade coincided with the expansion of urban areas. Merchant guilds formed an institutional foundation for this commercial revolution. Merchant guilds flourished in towns throughout Europe, and in many places, rose to prominence in urban political structures. In many towns in England, for example, the merchant guild became synonymous with the body of burgesses and evolved into the municipal government. In Genoa and Venice, the merchant aristocracy controlled the city government, which promoted their interests so well as to preclude the need for a formal guild.

Merchant guilds’ principal accomplishment was establishing the institutional foundations for long-distance commerce. Italian sources provide the best picture of guilds’ rise to prominence as an economic and social institution. Merchant guilds appear in many Italian cities in the twelfth century. Craft guilds became ubiquitous during the succeeding century.

In northern Europe, merchant guilds rose to prominence a few generations later. In the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, local merchant guilds in trading cities such as Lubeck and Bremen formed alliances with merchants throughout the Baltic region. The alliance system grew into the Hanseatic League which dominated trade around the Baltic and North Seas and in Northern Germany.

Social and religious guilds existed at this time, but few records survive. Small numbers of craft guilds developed, principally in prosperous industries such as cloth manufacturing, but records are also rare, and numbers appear to have been small.

As economic expansion continued in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the influence of the Catholic Church grew, and the doctrine of Purgatory developed. The doctrine inspired the creation of countless religious guilds, since the doctrine provided members with strong incentives to want to belong to a group whose prayers would help one enter heaven and it provided guilds with mechanisms to induce members to exert effort on behalf of the organization. Many of these religious associations evolved into occupational guilds. Most of the Livery Companies of London, for example, began as intercessory societies around this time.

The number of guilds continued to grow after the Black Death. There are several potential explanations. The decline in population raised per-capita incomes, which encouraged the expansion of consumption and commerce, which in turn necessitated the formation of institutions to satisfy this demand. Repeated epidemics decreased family sizes, particularly in cities, where the typical adult had on average perhaps 1.5 surviving children, few surviving siblings, and only a small extended family, if any. Guilds replaced extended families in a form of fictive kinship. The decline in family size and impoverishment of the church also forced individuals to rely on their guild more in times of trouble, since they no longer could rely on relatives and priests to sustain them through periods of crisis. All of these changes bound individuals more closely to guilds, discouraged free riding, and encouraged the expansion of collective institutions.

For nearly two centuries after the Black Death, guilds dominated life in medieval towns. Any town resident of consequence belonged to a guild. Most urban residents thought guild membership to be indispensable. Guilds dominated manufacturing, marketing, and commerce. Guilds dominated local politics and influenced national and international affairs. Guilds were the center of social and spiritual life.

The heyday of guilds lasted into the sixteenth century. The Reformation weakened guilds in most newly Protestant nations. In England, for example, the royal government suppressed thousands of guilds in the 1530s and 1540s. The king and his ministers dispatched auditors to every guild in the realm. The auditors seized spiritual paraphernalia and funds retained for religious purposes, disbanded guilds which existed for purely pious purposes, and forced craft and merchant guilds to pay large sums for the right to remain in operation. Those guilds that did still lost the ability to provide members with spiritual services.

In Protestant nations after the Reformation, the influence of guilds waned. Many turned to governments for assistance. They requested monopolies on manufacturing and commerce and asked courts to force members to live up to their obligations. Guilds lingered where governments provided such assistance. Guilds faded where governments did not. By the seventeenth century, the power of guilds had withered in England. Guilds retained strength in nations which remained Catholic. France abolished its guilds during the French Revolution in 1791, and Napoleon’s armies disbanded guilds in most of the continental nations which they occupied during the next two decades.

相关阅读材料4:

Stonehenge was produced by a culture that left no written records. Many aspects of Stonehenge remain subject to debate. This multiplicity of theories, some of them very colourful, are often called the “mystery of Stonehenge”.[citation needed]

There is little or no direct evidence for the construction techniques used by the Stonehenge builders. Over the years, various authors have suggested that supernatural or anachronistic methods were used, usually asserting that the stones were impossible to move otherwise. However, conventional techniques using Neolithic technology have been demonstrably effective at moving and placing stones of a similar size.[16] Proposed functions for the site include usage as an astronomical observatory, or as a religious site.

More recently two major new theories have been proposed. Professor Mike Parker Pearson, head of the Stonehenge Riverside Project, has suggested that Stonehenge was part of a ritual landscape and was joined to Durrington Walls by their corresponding avenues and the River Avon. He suggests that the area around Durrington Walls Henge was a place of the living, whilst Stonehenge was a domain of the dead. A journey along the Avon to reach Stonehenge was part of a ritual passage from life to death, to celebrate past ancestors and the recently deceased.[14] On the other hand, Geoffery Wainwright, president of the Society of Antiquaries of London, and Timothy Darvill of Bournemouth University have suggested that Stonehenge was a place of healing – the primeval equivalent of Lourdes.[17] They argue that this accounts for the high number of burials in the area and for the evidence of trauma deformity in some of the graves. However they do concede that the site was probably multifunctional and used for ancestor worship as well.[18] Isotope analysis indicates that some of the buried individuals were from other regions. A teenage boy buried approximately 1550 BC was raised near the Mediterranean Sea; a metal worker from 2300 BC dubbed the “Amesbury Archer” grew up near the alpine foothills of Germany; and the “Boscombe Bowmen” likely arrived from Wales or Brittany, France.[19]

Whatever religious, mystical or spiritual elements were central to Stonehenge, its design includes a celestial observatory function, which might have allowed prediction of eclipse, solstice, equinox and other celestial events important to a contemporary religion [20]

 

相关阅读5:

Definition: B cells are a type of white blood cell (called a b-lymphocyte) that produce antibodies. B cells develop from stem cells in the bone marrow.

According to NIAID, “lymphocytes bear the major responsibility for carrying out the activities of the immune system. The two major classes of lymphocytes are:

  • B cells (which are derived from bone marrow and develop into plasma cells that are the source of antibodies)
  • T cells (which are processed in the thymus and secrete lymphokines)

Antibodies can attach to a specific site on an antigen in order to block it or render it harmless. Any substance capable of triggering an immune response is called an antigen.”

NIAID reports, at the heart of the immune system is the ability to distinguish between self and non-self. Immune cells and other cells in the body usually coexist peaceably in a state known as self-tolerance. In abnormal situations (such as an autoimmune disease), the immune system can wrongly identify self as non-self and execute a misdirected immune attack.

According to Medscape, the altered development and function of B cells may play a prominent role in many rheumatic disorders. The concept of B-cell depletion therapy is being researched as a treatment for diseases such as:

 

 

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  1. saura
    2011-03-30 15:59:10 沙发

    老师我四月23号考,这套会中吗?

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