老郑博客 http://www.zjlei.com 新托福SAT备考资源网站 Tue, 17 Jul 2018 04:52:59 +0000 zh-CN hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.7 http://www.zjlei.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/cropped-2018032014333222-32x32.jpg 老郑博客 http://www.zjlei.com 32 32 备考SAT阅读文献部分的福音:Keys to American History-Understanding our Most Important Historic documents http://www.zjlei.com/sat%e8%80%83%e8%af%95/%e5%a4%87%e8%80%83sat%e9%98%85%e8%af%bb%e6%96%87%e7%8c%ae%e9%83%a8%e5%88%86%e7%9a%84%e7%a6%8f%e9%9f%b3%ef%bc%9akeys-to-american-history-understanding-our-most-important-historic-documents/ http://www.zjlei.com/sat%e8%80%83%e8%af%95/%e5%a4%87%e8%80%83sat%e9%98%85%e8%af%bb%e6%96%87%e7%8c%ae%e9%83%a8%e5%88%86%e7%9a%84%e7%a6%8f%e9%9f%b3%ef%bc%9akeys-to-american-history-understanding-our-most-important-historic-documents/#respond Tue, 17 Jul 2018 04:52:59 +0000 http://www.zjlei.com/?p=3448 通过美国最重要的文件来探索美国历史。

分为不同时期,介绍历史背景和最重要文件。

SAT阅读部分文献类比较吃力的同学可以看看,本书浅显易懂,适合中学生。

下载

链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1kR_UVROvfGCIEX0p00HB5g 密码:j4wm

 

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我们又双叒叕发真题了!2018年5月亚洲SAT真题送上 http://www.zjlei.com/software/%e6%88%91%e4%bb%ac%e5%8f%88%e5%8f%8c%e5%8f%92%e5%8f%95%e5%8f%91%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98%e4%ba%86%ef%bc%812018%e5%b9%b45%e6%9c%88%e4%ba%9a%e6%b4%b2sat%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98%e9%80%81%e4%b8%8a/ http://www.zjlei.com/software/%e6%88%91%e4%bb%ac%e5%8f%88%e5%8f%8c%e5%8f%92%e5%8f%95%e5%8f%91%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98%e4%ba%86%ef%bc%812018%e5%b9%b45%e6%9c%88%e4%ba%9a%e6%b4%b2sat%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98%e9%80%81%e4%b8%8a/#respond Wed, 23 May 2018 15:16:53 +0000 http://www.zjlei.com/?p=3445  

最近我们的真题发得比较频繁,喜欢刷题的同学有福了,当然不能只顾刷题,一定要多总结,多反思。

今天发的这套题是很多同学在这个5月考场上做过的题目,上一周刚刚出分,再做一次有利于总结考场失误,对于很多备考8月和10月SAT的同学,这也是重要的准备材料。

我将在下周发布这套题的参考答案。

链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1-WQbK34Q7LFr4ONSNUfzPg 密码:ys38

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2018年3月亚洲+2016年12月北美 SAT真题 http://www.zjlei.com/software/2018%e5%b9%b43%e6%9c%88%e4%ba%9a%e6%b4%b22016%e5%b9%b412%e6%9c%88%e5%8c%97%e7%be%8e-sat%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98/ http://www.zjlei.com/software/2018%e5%b9%b43%e6%9c%88%e4%ba%9a%e6%b4%b22016%e5%b9%b412%e6%9c%88%e5%8c%97%e7%be%8e-sat%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98/#respond Wed, 16 May 2018 00:30:49 +0000 http://www.zjlei.com/?p=3439 某度上搜出来的真题不是不能下就是各种苛刻条件,这一点一定让大家很不爽,还能不能愉快的刷题了?

老郑和留学工坊的题,绝不敝帚自珍! 继 一次性放出,所有2016年3月后SAT真题 和2017年10月亚洲+北美SAT真题和2018年3月北美SAT真题 后,今天我们再重磅推出两套真题:2018年3月亚洲和2016年12月北美,两套题都是高清完整版!欢迎大家下载。

下载地址

链接: https://pan.baidu.com/s/1gINfHwfb6tm3jDSrcBR28w 密码: wtcn

最后打个广告:

留学工坊暑假SAT模考冲刺班,托管冲刺班正在火热招生中,欢迎点击这里报名

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2017年10月亚洲+北美SAT真题和2018年3月北美SAT真题 http://www.zjlei.com/software/2017%e5%b9%b410%e6%9c%88%e4%ba%9a%e6%b4%b2%e5%8c%97%e7%be%8esat%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98%e5%92%8c2018%e5%b9%b43%e6%9c%88%e5%8c%97%e7%be%8esat%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98/ http://www.zjlei.com/software/2017%e5%b9%b410%e6%9c%88%e4%ba%9a%e6%b4%b2%e5%8c%97%e7%be%8esat%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98%e5%92%8c2018%e5%b9%b43%e6%9c%88%e5%8c%97%e7%be%8esat%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98/#respond Thu, 10 May 2018 05:50:03 +0000 http://www.zjlei.com/?p=3433 这三套题是对  一次放出真题 这篇文章的补充 我们新增发布3套真题

 

 

 

 

 

 

下载地址:链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1Zp3dww9bWWrbat6xSQSx3g 密码:b2jo

 

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重磅!新托福写作题库7.0发布 http://www.zjlei.com/ibt-3/ibt/%e9%87%8d%e7%a3%85%ef%bc%81%e6%96%b0%e6%89%98%e7%a6%8f%e5%86%99%e4%bd%9c%e9%a2%98%e5%ba%937-0%e5%8f%91%e5%b8%83/ http://www.zjlei.com/ibt-3/ibt/%e9%87%8d%e7%a3%85%ef%bc%81%e6%96%b0%e6%89%98%e7%a6%8f%e5%86%99%e4%bd%9c%e9%a2%98%e5%ba%937-0%e5%8f%91%e5%b8%83/#respond Tue, 08 May 2018 01:42:14 +0000 http://www.zjlei.com/?p=3431 托福写作题库7.0的发布距6.0发布(2017年3月)已经有一年多的时间了,这是这个系列更新最慢的一次,因为我也想看看在较长的时间内,这部题库对托福独立写作是否具有指导意义。从下面的统计数据可以看出,在过去的一年中题库6.0还是保持着较高的命中率 约为50%的样子,考虑到出新题的比例,旧题日的名中率高达95%左右。

另外,从过去的一年考试看,托福独立写作的出题有以下一些特点

1. 新旧题大约各占一半,这里的新题指的是亚洲首考的题目,部分题目或许在欧洲或北美已经出现,但机经缺失,我们也无从判断。

2. 连续两天的背靠背考试趋于同一话题 同一类型,估计是ETS照顾考试公平性所采取的措施,当然这也可以指导我们报名,报考连续两天考试的第二天可以通过第一天的机经大致了解话题,再配合我们的题库,相信无往不利

3. 教育话题继续膨胀,在出现的新题中,大多为教育话题,在题库中教育相关话题数量已经破百,教育应该作为考试的重中之重来准备。

4,三选一的比重继续增加 但总量依然很少, 另外很多三选一为老题的马甲。

5,建议 所有备考的同学写题库中所有题目的提纲,每个话题选择一道紫色题目练笔。

附2017年3月-2018年5月 托福写作6.0命中情况

20170311 生活休闲方式24题  It is better to relax by reading a book or watching a movie than by doing physical exercise.

20170401 朋友第17题重点题目 People should maintain friendships when their friends have done something they do not like.

20170415 朋友和友谊 1 . A friend who is intelligent is much better than a friend with a good sense of humor

170603  朋友和友谊 14题 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One can learn a lot about a person from the types of friend that a person has.难点题目

170715 生活休闲方式 27 it’s easier to maintain good health than it was in the past?

171014 成功和失败17. To remain happy and optimistic when you fail is more important than achieving success.

171021 道德和价值观20题 Students are more interested in politics today than they were in the past.

171126  生活休闲方式21. In the past people ate food that was better for their health than people today.

171125 社会和政府责任 9 The more money people have, the more they should give away to charity

171202 运动和旅游6 Which way would you like to change to improve your health: the kind of food you eat, or the amount of exercise, the amount of stress?

171209学校教育 50. Which one is the most important for teacher of high school? The ability to help students plan for their future; the ability to find the student who need the most help and to give that help; or the ability to encourage students to learn on their own outside of the classroom.

171216 环境4 The most important thing the government should do to improve health care is to clean the environment.

180106AM生活方式和休闲It is important for families to have meals together regularly.

生活方式和休闲

180106PM 媒体和广告It is important to read or watch the news presented by people whose views are different from your own or presented by people whose views are similar to your own?

180113  社会和政府责任19题

It’s a waste of money for Government to fund space travel or space exploration.

Give specific examples and details to support your answer.

180204 家庭教育 29 It is better for the younger to take risks and explore new things than older people.

180311 生活休闲方式6 People can solve important problems by themselves or with the help from their family members so there’s no need for the government to help them.

180331 环境16 What is the most useful action for people to help environment in their local communities?1. Plant trees and create parks2. Persuade local shops to stop providing plastic bags for consumers3. Increase access to public transportation (such as buses and trains), and reduce the automobiles on roads

180324 生活休闲方式25 People should take time to relax with hobbies or physical activities that are very different from what they do at work.难点题目

180415 运动旅游7 Sports teach us lessons about life

180421 学校教育  61 It’s difficult for teachers to be both popular(well liked)and effective in helping students learn. Agree or disagree?

180508学校教育 53 Some people think that some lessons for young students (age5-8) include video games are effective ways and interesting, other people think this way is distracting and waste time. What’s your opinion?

新托福题库7.0下载地址:链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1AkU3W2_-QXAZ0tEV5Dv6JQ 密码:h58d

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2017-2019 SAT考试时间表 http://www.zjlei.com/sat%e8%80%83%e8%af%95/2017-2019-sat%e8%80%83%e8%af%95%e6%97%b6%e9%97%b4%e8%a1%a8/ http://www.zjlei.com/sat%e8%80%83%e8%af%95/2017-2019-sat%e8%80%83%e8%af%95%e6%97%b6%e9%97%b4%e8%a1%a8/#respond Mon, 07 May 2018 01:49:15 +0000 http://www.zjlei.com/?p=3429 SAT Test Dates 2017-18 (U.S.)

Test Date Normal Deadline Late Registration* Online Score Release
August 26, 2017 July 28, 2017 August 15, 2017 September 18, 2017
October 7, 2017 September 8, 2017 September 27, 2017 October 20-26, 2017
November 4, 2017 October 5, 2017 October 25, 2017 November 17-23, 2017
December 2, 2017 November 2, 2017 November 21, 2017 December 15-21, 2017
March 10, 2018** February 9, 2018 February 28, 2018 March 23-29, 2018
May 5, 2018 April 6, 2018 April 25, 2018 May 18-24, 2018
June 2, 2018 May 3, 2018 May 23, 2018 July 11, 2018

 

 

 

 

SAT Test Dates 2017-18 (International)

Test Date Registration Deadline Online Score Release
October 7, 2017 September 8, 2017 October 20-26, 2017
November 4, 2017* October 5, 2017 November 17-23, 2017
December 2, 2017 November 2, 2017 December 15-21, 2017
March 10, 2018** February 9, 2018 March 23-29, 2018
May 5, 2018 April 6, 2018 May 18-24, 2018
June 2, 2018* May 3, 2018 July 11, 2018

SAT Test Dates 2018-19 (U.S.)

Test Date Normal Deadline Late Registration* Online Score Release
August 25, 2018 July 27, 2018 August 14, 2018 September 17, 2018
October 6, 2018 September 7, 2018 September 26, 2018 October 19-25, 2018
November 3, 2018 October 4, 2018 October 24, 2018 November 16-22, 2018
December 1, 2018 November 1, 2018 November 20, 2018 December 14-20, 2018
March 9, 2019** February 8, 2019 February 27, 2019 March 22-28, 2019
May 4, 2019 April 5, 2019 April 24, 2019 May 17-23, 2019
June 1, 2019 May 2, 2019 May 22, 2019 July 10, 2019

SAT Test Dates 2018-19 (International)

Test Date Registration Deadline Online Score Release
October 6, 2018 September 7, 2018 October 19-25, 2018
November 3, 2018* October 4, 2018 November 16-22, 2018
December 1, 2018 November 1, 2018 December 16-20, 2018
March 9, 2019** February 8, 2019 March 22-28, 2019
May 4, 2019 April 5, 2019 May 17-23, 2019
June 1, 2019* May 2, 2019 July 10, 2019

*SAT Subject Tests only.

**Regular SAT only.

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SAT文献必备,美国历史必备 The Federalist Papers《联邦党人文集》高清PDF下载 http://www.zjlei.com/e-book/sat%e6%96%87%e7%8c%ae%e5%bf%85%e5%a4%87%ef%bc%8c%e7%be%8e%e5%9b%bd%e5%8e%86%e5%8f%b2%e5%bf%85%e5%a4%87-the-federalist-papers%e3%80%8a%e8%81%94%e9%82%a6%e5%85%9a%e4%ba%ba%e6%96%87%e9%9b%86%e3%80%8b/ http://www.zjlei.com/e-book/sat%e6%96%87%e7%8c%ae%e5%bf%85%e5%a4%87%ef%bc%8c%e7%be%8e%e5%9b%bd%e5%8e%86%e5%8f%b2%e5%bf%85%e5%a4%87-the-federalist-papers%e3%80%8a%e8%81%94%e9%82%a6%e5%85%9a%e4%ba%ba%e6%96%87%e9%9b%86%e3%80%8b/#respond Sat, 24 Mar 2018 14:32:51 +0000 http://www.zjlei.com/?p=3421
以下介绍摘自wikipedia

Title page of the first collection of The Federalist (1788). This particular volume was a gift from Alexander Hamilton‘s wife Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton to her sister Angelica.

The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written under the pseudonym “Publius” by Alexander HamiltonJames Madison, and John Jay to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution. Seventy-seven of these essays were published serially in the Independent Journal, the New York Packet, and The Daily Advertiser between October 1787 and August 1788. A two-volume compilation of these and eight others was published in 1788 as The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution, as Agreed upon by the Federal Convention, September 17, 1787.[1][2] The collection was commonly known as The Federalist until the name The Federalist Papers emerged in the 20th century.

 

SAT文献类阅读 和复习AP美国历史必备辅助材料

 

下载:链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1QRfz4thYcZNAe-H_456QFQ 密码:kyb5

 

 

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一次性放出,所有2016年3月后SAT真题 http://www.zjlei.com/software/%e4%b8%80%e6%ac%a1%e6%80%a7%e6%94%be%e5%87%ba%ef%bc%8c%e6%89%80%e6%9c%892016%e5%b9%b43%e6%9c%88%e5%90%8esat%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98/ http://www.zjlei.com/software/%e4%b8%80%e6%ac%a1%e6%80%a7%e6%94%be%e5%87%ba%ef%bc%8c%e6%89%80%e6%9c%892016%e5%b9%b43%e6%9c%88%e5%90%8esat%e7%9c%9f%e9%a2%98/#respond Tue, 20 Mar 2018 15:09:21 +0000 http://www.zjlei.com/?p=3400 市面上的SAT真题大概有三种。

第一种是官方发布的,也就是官方的Practice 5-8 再加上分别对应的是 2016年5月北美亚洲两套, 2016年10月北美和2017年1月北美 还有就是2017年5月亚洲(实际官方发布为April 2017schoolday Q&S)这5套题,他们是除了OG的四套题之外 最清晰的同时配有官方答案,做模考的话这几套题是首选。

第二种是文章题目都为官方题目(非官方渠道的泄露版试题),比如2016年3月 北美 2017年3月北美  2016年10月亚洲  2017年5月北美  2017年8月北美 2017 11月北美 和2017年12月亚洲和北美 这些题部分配有非官方答案(网络来源,多为各机构老师答案),部分没有答案,有答案的也有争议。这些题目可用于考前冲刺模考,部分题目有重复的可能性(非常小),对于有争议的答案和缺少的答案,工坊的学员可咨询上课老师。

第三种是根据机经还原改编的题目,这些题目文章是正确的,但多只有阅读,同时题目也是根据机经还原,不准确或不完整 当然答案也来自于各“拼题”机构,比如2017年1月亚洲,对比阅读是拼凑的老SAT题目,其他的文章符合实际考试但题目跟考试有差异。2016年6月亚洲也属于这种情况 。工坊根据机经也独家推出了2016年11月北美阅读题目。对于这类题目,建议各位备考同学采用多理解文章的方式来准备,不用过于纠结题目,因为很多题目不太合理,更多的是精读文章,理解文章逻辑,毕竟这些文章也有小概率在以后的考试中重复。当然对于文章有任何不清楚的地方,工坊的学员欢迎向老师提问。

timu

下载地址 链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1q_0l298sSX-gxoTBsnboAg 密码:sdwx

 

 

 

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American Pageant: AP美国历史的必备材料 下载 http://www.zjlei.com/software/american-pageant-ap%e7%be%8e%e5%9b%bd%e5%8e%86%e5%8f%b2%e7%9a%84%e5%bf%85%e5%a4%87%e6%9d%90%e6%96%99-%e4%b8%8b%e8%bd%bd/ http://www.zjlei.com/software/american-pageant-ap%e7%be%8e%e5%9b%bd%e5%8e%86%e5%8f%b2%e7%9a%84%e5%bf%85%e5%a4%87%e6%9d%90%e6%96%99-%e4%b8%8b%e8%bd%bd/#respond Mon, 19 Mar 2018 08:08:48 +0000 http://www.zjlei.com/?p=3389 在丰富多彩的轶事、第一人称语录和其标志性的会写语言支持下,American Pageant是最易读、最受欢迎、最有效的美国历史教科书之一。

教整部教材提供了年代表,从历史人物众多有趣的引言,和精辟的导语,将美国历史上的六大阶段。附录包括每章的“建议阅读材料”、带有参考页的美国宪法,以及美国广泛的统计概况。

可以说 这是一部学习美国历史的必备教材,现在放出电子版下载:

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下载地址:链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/13qFQspS7Jj-jynwWoTWoGw 密码:j2eq

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2017年3月北美SAT考试作文essay题目原文 http://www.zjlei.com/sat%e8%80%83%e8%af%95/2017%e5%b9%b43%e6%9c%88%e5%8c%97%e7%be%8esat%e8%80%83%e8%af%95%e4%bd%9c%e6%96%87essay%e9%a2%98%e7%9b%ae%e5%8e%9f%e6%96%87/ http://www.zjlei.com/sat%e8%80%83%e8%af%95/2017%e5%b9%b43%e6%9c%88%e5%8c%97%e7%be%8esat%e8%80%83%e8%af%95%e4%bd%9c%e6%96%87essay%e9%a2%98%e7%9b%ae%e5%8e%9f%e6%96%87/#respond Sun, 12 Mar 2017 13:52:54 +0000 http://www.zjlei.com/?p=3383 文章选自  David Katz, M.D. Opinion Stewa 发表于 2013年6月12日的The Huffington Post 我们贴出的是原文 有1394字,考试时节选精简到760字左右

Everyone has opinions. You probably know what they say about that. But leaving aside the olfactory qualities of all the opinions to which we are entitled, we at least tend to know when our opinions are just opinions. But not with nutrition*, where not only does everyone have an opinion, but everyone seems to think theirs is an expert opinion. And our culture seems to be okay with that. I’m not.

By the same token, I’m not convinced that someone who happens to live through a bad car crash to drive again is automatically qualified to take over NHTSA, or set up shop as a motor vehicle safety expert, and dispense advice accordingly. Call me crazy.

I am not at all sure that someone who inadvertently sets fire to his kitchen, and manages to put out the fire before burning everything entirely down, is a shoe-in as fire commissioner, or qualifies as a fire safety expert. I am not sure that he should go on to establish a cottage industry in fire safety, selling expert advice in books, blogs, and programs.

I would have my doubts if someone who has driven for 10 years without ever having an airbag deploy writes a book, starts an organization and launches a social movement to oppose airbags as a government conspiracy. She might be convinced that airbags are a ploy by the “Big Auto” industry to dupe the public and drive up prices, but that wouldn’t make it so.

I’m not entirely persuaded that someone who happens to have gone hiking in Alaska once without being eaten by a bear is de facto a leading authority on bears, and qualified to dispense expert guidance on how to handle them.

I don’t think someone who has been a passenger on a plane is automatically a credible source about how to fly one. I don’t think anyone who has driven over a suspension bridge necessarily knows how best to build one. I don’t think someone treated once by a neurosurgeon gets to offer expert commentary on the nuances of brain surgery.

I trust these examples all seem pretty silly. We would never allow for claims of expertise, and cottage industries based on them, to be established on such flighty nonsense.

Unless, of course, the claims of expertise and cottage industries pertained to nutrition and weight loss — in which case, that’s exactly what we would do. It’s exactly what we are doing.

Everyone who has ever gotten fat and then lost weight is embraced as an expert, fully authorized by our culture to dispense advice and sell books advising others on how to succeed. For the most part, every one of these makes a case different from every other — and yet every one is convinced they have found the universal formula. And over and over again, the faithful, or hopeful, line up and reach for their credit cards.

Don’t get me wrong — I am delighted for very individual who figures out how to lose weight, and more importantly, find health. I am delighted each time someone finds a path they can follow to lasting vitality. But the notion that this automatically registers as expertise is exactly analogous to the car crash and kitchen fire examples above. In any area other than nutrition and weight control, we would either laugh or roll our eyes.

Everyone who has ever eaten seems to be granted an equally authoritative opinion about nutrition.

This is not just nonsense. It’s dangerous nonsense.

I am not arguing that nutrition is special and should be treated differently simply because it is one of the most profound influences on human health (it is). I am not arguing that nutrition should be treated with particular respect because it makes the list of top three causes of premature death and chronic disease, and can exert a positive influence just as great (it does). I am not suggesting that nutrition should be shown unique deference because it represents the construction material for the growing bodies of children and grandchildren we love.

Quite the contrary; I am saying we need to stop treating nutrition differently. We simply need to treat it as we do any other subject that matters, and a whole lot of harm and confusion would go away. We need to stop treating nutrition with unique disdain.

What harm ensues from that disdain? Every silly diet to come down the pike gets the same treatment. I know this, because I do multiple media interviews every week about whatever the fad diet du jour happens to be (the latest theme is intermittent fasting, by the way). These diets are then featured on television and in print in a way that gives them all comparable credibility. And we are all kept in a state of perpetual confusion about what’s what.

The result? We already have far too many silly diets than any one of us could try in a lifetime, and we just keep getting fatter and sicker all the while. Competing versions of dogma are a catalyst for nothing but dissent and quagmire.

The recurrent promise of magic from sources given credibility they don’t deserve forestalls the unified, culture-wide commitment to eating well and being active that really could add years to our lives, and life to our years. And yes — we really do know what eating well means. We are not by any means clueless about the basic care and feeding of Homo sapiens, and how bizarre it would be if we were! Our knowledge of optimal nutrition is by no means perfect, but it is genuine knowledge — and there is no need to make perfect the enemy of good.

Admittedly, there are differences of opinion among even legitimate experts in nutrition. To some extent, this is the inevitable parsing of details that occurs among experts in any field; it’s about the icing, not the cake. To some extent, this is a byproduct of our incomplete and evolving knowledge of nutrition and health. But I do believe it is compounded by our tendency to treat any opinion on nutrition as an expert opinion. To get noticed at all in such context, some otherwise legitimate experts wind up exaggerating their perspectives to the point of disfigurement. I see this as the very unfortunate result of collusion among a culture that fails to require true expertise as a basis for expert opinion; a news media that profits from the perpetual uncertainty of their audience, and thus their receptivity to the next false promise; and experts willing to do whatever it takes to be heard above this din. Alas.

All it would take to fix this stultifying mess is to treat nutrition and weight management like every other legitimate field of inquiry. With no more respect than all the others, but no less either.

We don’t care what people not trained to do neurosurgery think about neurosurgical technique. They are not qualified to opine. When it comes to building airplanes or suspension bridges, we want to hear from the right kinds of highly-trained engineers, not some character who happened to ride in a plane once, or drive across a bridge. When it comes to flying those planes, we want things in the hands of trained pilots — not some guy with a lot of frequent-flyer miles and strong convictions. And I’m confident we want special military operations delegated to our elite troops, and not someone who saw Zero Dark Thirty and came out convinced he could have done a better job.

For now, anyone who shares opinions about nutrition or weight loudly and often enough — or cleverly enough — is embraced as an authority, with no one generally even asking what if any training they’ve had. This is compounded by the fact that, in the famous words of Bertrand Russell, “Fools and fanatics are always so certain of themselves, but wiser men so full of doubts.” It is the least substantiated, most uninformed opinions about how to eat that will come at you with the greatest conviction. That’s your first clue that something is awry, because true expertise always allows for doubt.

We have created a seething stew of opinion about everything to do with nutrition, including, presumably, stew. That leaves us with far too many cooks, many lacking credentials to be in the kitchen in the first place. I trust everyone knows what that means.

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